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Page number:41 
Remarks (internal):On account of the catenate conidia, GOTTWALD (1982), assigned Fusicladium effusum to Cladosporium, but the conidiogenous loci of this species agree well with those of Fusicladium in that they are denticle-like and have unthickened walls. The conidiogenous loci in species of Cladosporium, described and illustrated in detail by DAVID (1997), are quite distinct. Therefore, F. effusum belongs in Fusicladium, as has recently been confirmed by molecular studies of rDNA ITS sequences (SCHNABEL et al., 1999; SCHUBERT 2001) in which this species clustered close to various Venturia species with Fusicladium and Pollaccia anamorphs within a monophyletic Venturia clade (see chapter 3). In addition to its occurrence on an unrelated host, Fusicladium effusum var. carpineum Ellis & Everh. on Carpinus species (Corylaceae) in North America is distinguished from F. effusum on Carya species (Juglandaceae) in causing distinct lesions and having much longer and wider conidiophores with paler conidiogenous cells and less conspicuous conidiogenous loci. This variety is now considered to be a separate species of Fusicladium. Records on Juglans regia from Brazil (MENDEZ et al. 1998) are uncertain (no material seen). 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Fusicladium effusum G. Winter, J. Mycol. 1: 101-102 (1885) Fig. 17
= Cladosporium effusum (G. Winter) Demaree, J. Agric. Res. 37: 186 (1928), homonym, non Berk. & M.A. Curtis, Grevillea 3(27): 106 (1875).
= Fusicladosporium effusum (G. Winter) Partrigde & Morgan-Jones, Mycotaxon 85: 364 (2003).
= Fusicladium caryigenum Ellis & Langl., J. Mycol. 4: 124 (1888); lectotype: on leaves of Carya illinoensis, USA, Louisiana, St. Martin, 3 Sept. 1888, A.B. Langlois, Fl. Ludov. 1499 (NY), selected here; isolectotypes: on leaves of Carya illinoensis (= Carya olivaeformis), USA, Louisiana, St. Martinsville, Sept. 1888, A.B. Langlois (BPI 426315, 426333; M).
= Cladosporium caryigenum (Ellis & Langl.) Gottwald, Mycologia 74(3): 388 (1982).
Holotype: on Carya tomentosa (= Carya alba), North America, USA, Illinois, Cobden Zels., 1 Oct. 1882, F.S. Earle (B).
Teleomorph: Unknown.
Lit.: SACCARDO (1886: 346), GOTTWALD (1982), IMI Descr. (No. 1514), PARTRIDGE & MORGAN-JONES (2003: 364).
Ill.: GOTTWALD (1982: Figs 1-3), IMI Descr. (No. 1514, Figs A-D), PARTRIDGE & MORGAN-JONES (2003: 363, Fig. 2).
Exs.: Ellis & Everh., N. Am. F. 545; Kellerm. & Sw., Kans. F. 39.
Leaf spots amphigenous, subcircular to angular, 1-3 mm wide, often confluent, diffuse, numerous, mostly spread along leaf veins, dark brown to black, with an irregular margin. Colonies amphigenous, caespitose, dark brown to blackish. Mycelium mainly subcuticular. Stromata variable in size, composed of pale olivaceous to brown, angular to rounded, thick-walled, pseudoparenchymatous cells, 4-8 µm diam., forming up to three layers. Conidiophores solitary or loosely fasciculate, arising from stromata or from hyphae, erect, straight, sometimes flexuous at the apex, unbranched or apically branched, 22-130(-170) x 4-6 µm, septate, pale to dark brown, smooth, with somewhat thickened walls. Conidiogenous cells integrated, terminal or intercalary, or conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells, 10-40 µm long, with a single or several denticle-like conidiogenous loci, proliferation sympodial, loci unthickened, 1.5-3 µm wide, not or only somewhat darkened-refractive. Conidia in simple or branched chains, pyriform, subcylindrical, ellipsoid, fusiform, (8.5-)10-24 x 5-10 µm, pale brown, 0(-1)-septate, smooth, attenuated towards apex and base, apex mostly truncate, occasionally rounded or pointed, base truncate, hila unthickened, 1.5-3 µm wide, but often somewhat darkened-refractive.
Hosts and distribution: on Carya spp. and ?Juglans spp. (Juglandaceae), Africa, North, Central and South America, New Zealand - Carya aquatica (North America, USA, FL), C. cordiformis (= C. amara) (North America, USA, KS, WI), C. glabra (North America, USA, FL), C. illinoensis (= C. pecan, = C. olivaeformis) (Africa, South Africa; North America, USA, AL, LA, MO, TX; South America, Brazil; New Zealand), C. ovata (North America, USA, WI), C. tomentosa (= C. alba) (North America, USA, IL, LA, KS), Carya spp. (North America, USA, AL, FL, NC, OK; Central America, Mexico; South America, Paraguay), ?Juglans regia (South America, Brazil).
Material examined: collections from B, M, NY.
 
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