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Page number:149 
Remarks (internal):This is a rather frequent species in W and S Europe and relatively easy to identify in its typical form due to the nature of the mouth and the spores. It is common to encounter it together with T. brumale Pers., from which it can be separated by the nature of the exoperidium, the colour of the endoperidium, the spores and the capillitial septa.
I have identified some collections as forma bataviense, characterized by the more irregular verrucae of the spores and a more squamous and darker stem, thus approaching T. brumale but with a hyphal exoperidium. The collections so identified, and which for the time being I do not intend to consider as infraspecific taxa are:
Europe: Netherlands: Bloemendaal, Mevr. de Visser - Roelofs (L); Prov. Zuid - Holland, Katwijk as Zee, leg. Pereira (L); ibid., Wasseenaar, leg. Maas Geesteranus 10.186 (L: in the event of considering it a new infraspecific taxon, this would be the type); I Klitterme ved Kjul AA (C). Asia: U.S.S.R.: Astrahkan SSR, 4 km N of Koshentovspogo Range, Kordopha, leg. Rodin & Borisova, as T. squamosum (LE).
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Tulostoma melanocyclum Bresadola (Fig. 95; Pls. XXVI: 1-2, 5;XXX:5) apud Petri, Ann. Mycol. 2: 415. 1904.
Etym.:The name refers to the usual character of the dark peristome.
Spore-sac relatively small, up to 10 mm diam, subglobose. Exoperidium hyphal, the threads agglutinated with sand grains. Endoperidium finally smooth, almost white to, more generally, somewhat cinereous, with some dark spots. Mouth tubular, with a lip ca. 1 mm diam, scarcely projecting but with the lip distinct, light-coloured, surrounded usually by a notoriously darker peristome (dark grey or dirty brownish). Socket not prominent, subscaly. Gleba ochraceous. Stem straw-coloured to dark brown, fistulose, ending basally in a prominent hyphal bulb mixed with sand particles, packed inwardly with silky fibrills, hardly squamulose, decorticating in large straps, or substriate to almost smooth, up to 30 x 2.5 mm.
Spores brownish, globose to subglobose, echinulate under L.M., with a thick episporium, 4.8-7.3 µm; under SEM the ornamentation appears as conic columns, more or less tall, formed by various elements fused at the apex, or verrucae somewhat elevated and anastomosed. Capillitium sub-hyaline, branched, septate; threads thick-walled, with visible to solid lumen, hardly swollen at the uncoloured, disjointable septa; 1.8-7.2 µm diam.
Habitat: clayish soil with sand, amongst herbaceous vegetation.
Distribution: It is a typically European species, particularly Southern, although collections have been identified from North America and, with some doubt, from Asia and South America.
Holotype: Italy, in glabrosis prope Tridentium", 1902, leg. Bresadola (K!).
Illustration: Pouzar (1958: figs. 218, 219 A).

 
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