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Page number:48 
Remarks (internal):First reported from Britain by Dring (1966) based on six collections in Kew previously determined as T. brumale, including two revised by J.E.Wright as T. brumale var. bataviense Wright (fined.). Some additional collections are now available. The species occurs usually from October to December, but may also appear in spring. It is similar to T. brumale, but distinguished by the paler, pruinose endoperidium, the form of the exoperidium and by characters of the spores and capillitial hyphae.
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Tulostoma melanocyclum Bres. in Petri in Ann. Mycol. 2: 415 (1904).
Selected descriptions: Dring (1966: 169-171); Wright (1987: 149-151)
Selected illustrations: Dring (1966: fig. 1, d-g); Mornand (1989: fig. 1); Pouzar (1958: figs 218, 219A); Wright (1987: fig. 95; pl. 26/ 1-2, 4; 30/ 5).
Diagnostic characters: Spores verruculose, 5-6.5 µm diam. (excluding ornament); septa of capillitial hyphae scarcely inflated, not or slightly pigmented; exoperidium hyphal, inconspicuous; socket lacking distinct lacerate membrane.
Fruitbody epigeous at maturity, stipitate, 25-40 mm high, base rooting, binding sand grains. Stipe rooting, cylindric or slightly tapered below, 23-35 (-50) mm high, 2-3 (-4) mm diam., brownish or reddish-brown, sometimes yellowish above, surface fibrous, often scaly towards the apex, binding sand grains at the base. Exoperidium hyphal, tending to bind sand grains. Endoperidial body 8-10 mm diam., subglobose, depressed beneath, with a torn collar-like zone around stipe apex, peristome single. Endoperidium cream to pale straw or pinkish, finely yellowish scurfy-pruinose. Peristome apical, well-defined, circular, slightly raised, somewhat darker than surrounding endoperidium. Gleba yellow-brown.
Capillitial hyphae 3-10 µm diam., hyaline, branched, thick-walled, with lumen continuous but often narrow, septate, septa not or only slightly inflated, hyaline or brownish, surface smooth or slightly encrusted. Basidia not seen. Basidiospores globose or subglobose, pale yellowish brown, with an irregular, minutely verruculose ornament, 5-6 (-6.7) µm diam excluding ornament, 5.5-7 (-7.5) µm diam. including ornament, verruculae isolated or rarely coalescent, 0.2-0.5 µm high.
Habitat: on sandy soil, mostly on dunes, amongst moss or herbaceous plants.
Distribution and frequency: very rare in Britain, known largely from western and south-western localities in Wales, Devon and Lancashire; there is also a single collection from Norfolk. It is widely distributed in Europe, particularly in southern parts, and is known also from North America. Records from Asia and South America require confirmation (Wright 1987).
 
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