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Page number:253 
Remarks (public):Echinodontium tinctorium is commonly known as the Indian paint fungus, and is the main cause of heartrot and volume loss in true firs throughout their wide range in western coniferous forests. For a thorough review of all aspects of the biology and pathological importance of this fungus see Malloy (1967). 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Echinodontium tinctorium(Ell. & Ev.) Ell. & Ev. Fig. 119
Torrey Bot. Club Bull. 27:49. 1900: Fomes tinctorius Ell. & Ev., Torrey Bot. Club Bull. 22:362. 1895.
Basidiocarps perennial, sessile, ungulate to applanate, usually developing under branch stubs, up to 40 cm wide, 30 cm deep, and 20 cm thick, upper surface dark dull brown and hispid to matted-hirsute at first, quickly beco-ming blackened, crustose, and rimose, cracking radially and concentrically into rectangular blocks, sulcate, margin brown, hispid to coarsely hirsute, lower surface irregularly poroid to daedaleoid at the margin, the dissepi-ments quickly splitting to form a hydnaceous hymenophore with flattened to cylindric teeth, these thin and brittle at first but becoming thick, rigid, and crowded by layering of the hymenium with age, teeth pale buff to pinkish buff in sporulating condition, inner tissue becoming brick red as layering of hymenium progresses, up to 2.5 mm thick and 15 mm long, con-text brick red, with radially arranged fibers but hard and woody, with a distinct, blackish upper crustose layer up to 2 mm thick, entire context up to 5 cm thick, in older basidiocarps with a thick layer of fused older teeth below the fibrous context.
Hyphal system dimitic, contextual generative hyphae thin-walled, hyaline in KOH, with clamps and simple septa, occasionally branched, 2.5-6 i_tm in diam, contextual skeletal hyphae thick-walled, bright reddish brown in KOH and Melzer's reagent, with rare branching, nonseptate, 3-6.5 µm in diam; tramal generative hyphae with abundant clamps, 2-5 [tm in diam, tramal skeletal hyphae similar to those in context.
Cystidia abundant, becoming thick-walled, ventricose to subulate, dark reddish brown in KOH and Melzer's reagent, some paler at the tip, fusoid to mammillate, apically incrusted but incrustation dissolving readily in KOH and Melzer's reagent, 25-65 x 8-17 µm, projecting from sporulating hymenium and also imbedded in older hymenial strata.
Basidia narrowly clavate, 4-sterigmate, 35-45 x 6.5-8 µm, with a basal clamp.
Basidiospores ellipsoid, hyaline, weakly to moderately amyloid in Melzer's reagent, thick-walled, smooth to minutely echinulate, 6-8 x 4.5-6 µm.
Type of rot. Yellowish laminated to stringy heartrot of living conifers. Cultural characteristics. See Nobles 1948, 1965, Stalpers 1978.
Sexuality. Heterothallic (Miller 1962).
Substrata. Primarily on Abies and Tsuga,rarely on other conifers. (1, 135, 138, 148, 190, 194).
Distribution. Throughout the range of true firs and hemlock in western coniferous forests from Alaska to Mexico, not known from eastern North America or elsewhere in the world.
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