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Page number:5 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:ECHINODONTIUM BALLOUII (BANKER) GROSS, comb. nov. Steccherinum ballouii BANKER, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 36: 341. 1909.
Radulum ballouii (BANKER) LLOYD, Mycological Writings 3, Mycological letter No. 29, page 1. 1910.
Illustrations. Figures 1, 2, and 15; see also BALLOU (1908), BANKER (1909), and LLOYD (1916a).
Macroscopic. Basidiocarps (Figs. 1 and 2) lignicolous, perennial, effused-reflexed to conchate or bell-shaped, woody, occurring singly or in groups, 2-8 x 1-4 x 1-2.5 cm; upper surface (Fig. 2). Fuscous Black to Blackish Brown (3), rimose-rugose, zonate; margin Sepia, 1-3 mm wide, acute, undulating, pubescent, under surface (Fig. 1) warted and fertile; context Hair Brown, woody, zonate (apparent with hand lens), 2-5 mm thick; hymenophore Citrine-Drab to Sepia in herbarium specimens, apparently golden-yellow when fresh (LLOYD, 1916a; BANKER, 1909), dentate; teeth scattered to adjacent, subulate to wart-like, up to 1 cm long, 1-2 mm in diam, apices acute to obtuse, sometimes composed of several small warts, inner tissue darker.
Microscopic. Context hyphae of two types; skeletal hyphae (Fig. 15e) thick-walled to solid, 3.5-4.5 µm in diam, smooth, brown, darkening slightly in KOH solution, rarely nodose-septate; generative hyphae (Fig. 15f) thin-walled, 3.5-4.5 µm in diam, hyaline, smooth, nodose-septate with secondary simple septa, occasionally branched; hyphae of the inner tissue of the teeth similar but frequently branched and frequently nodose-septate; hymenium hyaline; subhymenium stratified, up to 200 µm thick; cystidia (Fig. 15a) subulate to fusiform, 25-45 x 5-9 µm, upper portion incrusted, usually protruding up to 15 µm, originally thin-walled and hyaline, becoming thick-walled and colored (Fig. 15b) similar to skeletal hyphae; basidia (Fig. 15c) clavate, 20-25 x 6-8 µm, 4-sterigmate; spores (Fig. 15d) ellipsoid, 7-8 x 4-6 µm, hyaline, strongly amyloid, lightly echinulate.
Rot character. Undetermined. Host. Chamaecyparis thyoides. Range. Known only from New Jersey.
Specimens examined. NEW JERSEY - Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey, on C. thyoides, W. H. BALLOU, April 6, 1908, TYPE (NY); Orange County (apparently Ocean County), on C. thyoides, W. H. BALLOU, May 1, 1909 (NYS and BPI).
Discussion. Both BANKER (1909) and LLOYD (1916a) recognized a resemblance to Echinodontium tinctorium. If either had compared it to E. tsugicola (then considered a doubtful species) a greater resemblance would have been noted. Neither Steccherinum nor Radulum include species with perennial and woody basidiocarps, and no species of either genus is known to form a thick, stratified subhymenium. Furthermore, E. ballouii is very similar to E. japonicum, although there is good evidence for two distinct species. E. ballouii is treated as a separate species because the spores are larger, the teeth are wart-like, the cystidia are more fusiform, and the habitat is coniferous rather than angiospermous wood. Unfortunately, collections of E. japonicum are rare, and E. ballouii apparently has not been collected since 1909. Cultures of both species are unavailable, and the determination of their relationship may not be clarified until cultural comparisons including interfertility tests can be made.
Basidiocarps grow attached to dead branches high in the crown of living Atlantic white-cedar. The wood of this tree is valuable and most of the older stands have been harvested. A mature stand is being preserved in the Lebanon State Park, New Jersey; so there is hope of collecting this fungus in the future. Several recent attempts by the author have been unsuccessful.
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