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Page number:12 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:ECHINODONTIUM TINCTORIUM (ELL. & EVERH.) ELL. & EVERH., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 27: 49. 1900
Fomes tinctorius ELL. & EVERH., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22. 362. 1895.
Hydnum tinctorium (ELL. & EVERH.) LLOYD, Mycological Writings No. 1: 2. 1898.
Hydnofomes tinctorius (ELL. & EVERH.) LLOYD, Mycological Writings No. 6, Mycological Notes No. 64, page 1013. 1920. Illustrations. Figures 9, 10, 11, and 19; see also LLOYD (1898), WEIR & HUBERT (1916), HUBERT (1931), and THOMAS (1958).
Macroscopic. Basidiocarps lignicolous, perennial, ungulate (Fig. 9) to convex, rarely 2-3 imbricate, 4-20 x 3-10 x 2-10 cm (up to 40 x 30 x 20 cm.); upper surface Olivaceous Black, rimoserugose, zonate; margin Olive-Brown, 0.5-3 cm wide, obtuse, pubescent, under surface poroid to daedaloid and fertile; young basidiocarps (Fig. 11) globose to compressed-globose, entire upper surface similar to the margin, hymenophore daedaloid to poroid; context Rufous to Vinaceous, 1-5 cm thick, fibrous, fibers radiately arranged, woody, zonate with zones usually corresponding to those of the upper surface, context-like tissue formed by adjacent teeth growing together, tooth outlines apparent, color similar to the context, up to 10 cm thick; hymenophore Pale Olive-Buff, dentate, teeth adjacent, subulate, up to 3 cm long, 1-3 mm in diam, cross section rounded or flattened, inner tissue Stafford's Brown, older teeth with an inner core of darker tissue, apices Olive-Brown, fibrous, sterile; spore prints white.
Microscopic. Context hyphae of two types; skeletal hyphae (Fig. 19e) thick-walled to solid, 3.5-5 µm in diam, smooth, tawny or orange colored, turning maroon in KOH solution, rarely nodoseseptate, rarely branched, walls thinning toward the terminal end to a tear-shaped lumen, with simple septa; generative hyphae (Fig. 19f) thin-walled, 3.5-5 µm in diam, regularly branched, nodoseseptate with secondary simple septa, presence of simple septa variable, ranging from regularly spaced intervals of 20-30 µm to rare, some simple septa present in all tissues, some generative hyphae with thickened walls (0.5 µm thick) colored the same as skeletal hyphae, hyphae of the inner tissue of the teeth similar but occasionally branched and regularly nodose-septate; hymenium hyaline; subhymenium stratified, up to 300 µm thick; cystidia (Fig. 19a) fusiform, 30-50 x 7-10 µm, upper portions incrusted, usually protruding up to 20 µm, originally thin-walled and hyaline, becoming thick-walled (Fig. 19b) and colored similar to skeletal hyphae; basidia (Fig. 19c) clavate, 25-30 x 6-8 µm, 4-sterigmate; spores (Fig. 19d) ellipsoid, 6-8 x 5-6 µm, hyaline, strongly amyloid, minutely echinulate to smooth (usually some trace of echinulation apparent under oil immersion).
Rot character. Echinodontium tinctorium causes a heartrot known as "brown stringy rot," but is considered a white rot based on a positive oxidase reaction. The wood breaks down to a reddishbrown stringy mass in the advanced stage of decay. In later stages practically all of the wood is utilized and hollows may develop. Incipient decay appears water-soaked, and may show a red stain.
Hosts. All species of Abies and Tsuga in western North America (excepting Abies balsamea [L.] MILL.). Picea engelmannii, Picea glauca (MOENCH) Voss, and P. sitchensis. Also known to occur on Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO and Thuja alicata, but not normally associated with these species.
Range. Echinodontium tinctorium follows the host species from Mexico north through the Rocky Mountains into Alberta; west to the Pacific Coast and northward along the coast into Alaska.
Specimens examined. TYPE-Admirality Islands, Alaska, J. G. SWAN No. 20851, Oct. 1894 (NY); ARIZONA-Coronado Nat. For., on Abies concoloy (GORD. & GLEND.) LINDL., J. L. LOWE and R. L. GILBERTSON No. 9532, Sept. 3, 1958 (SY-F); CALIFORNIA-Mt. Shasta, on Abies magnifica A. MURK., W. B. COOKE No. 20333, July 18, 1947 (BPI); COLORADO-Los Animas Nat. For., on A. concolor, G. C. BATES and G. C. HEDGCOCK No. 757 (BPI); IDAHOJanesville, on A. gyandis, C. V. PIPER No. 104, July, 1898 (NY); Priest River, on Tsuga heterophylla, WEIR No. 3325, Oct. 1914 (BPI); Priest Lake, on T. mertensiana, C. V. PIPER No. 50047, Aug. 1901 (CGL); Nezperce Co., on A. gyandis, O. MALOY (in formalin), Sept. 1962 (SY-F); Latah Co., on A. gyandis, H. GROSS Nos. 1, 2, and 3, Aug. 1961 (SY-F); Nezperce Co., Waha Area, on Picea engelmannii, H. GROSS No. 6, June, 1962 (SY-F); Clearwater Co., on Abies lasiocarpa (HOOK.) NUTT., H. GROSS No. 7, Aug. 1962 (SY-F); Priest River, on Thuja plicata, WEIR No. 3327, Aug. 1913 (BPI) ; MONTANA- on Pseudotsuga menziesii, C. W. WOODWARD & P. E. SPAULDING, June 17, 1917 (BPI) ; Woodward, on Picea engelmannii, P. E. SPAULDING & G. C. HEDGCOCK No. 759, Oct. 1907 (BPI); NEW MEXICO- Ute Park, on A. concoloy, P. C. STANDLEY No. 13806, Aug. 1916 (BPI); OREGON- Pamelia Lake, on A. amabilis, J. R. HANSBROUGH No. 1315, Sept. 11, 1931 (BPI); WASHINGTON- Pullman, C. V. PIPER No. 26206, 1898 (CGL); Mt. Baker, on Abies procera REHD., J. R. WEIR No. 3322, Aug. 1913 (BPI). Also thirty-five additional specimens which duplicate geographic and host records.
Discussion. The common name of this fungus is "Indian Paint Fungus". J. B. SWAN, the original collector, noted that the Indians of the area ground the basidiocarps into a powder and used the material for dyes and paints.
Young basidiocarps are formed by hyphae growing out from the lower side of the junction between a dead branch and the tree bole. Basidiocarps first appear as a pubescent mass of tissue which resembles the margin of older plants. The upper surface retains this margin-like appearance for several seasons (Fig. 11) as new growth develops on all free surfaces. Growth is in a general radial direction causing a more rounded shape than is the case for older basidiocarps. Later growth develops only on the lower and distal portions and the non-growing upper surface becomes black and rimose (Fig. 9). During periods of inactivity or slow growth, the skeletal hyphae in contact with the atmosphere coalesce in tufts and darken. This gives the context a concentrically zoned appearance and these zones usually are continuous with the concentric zones of the upper surface. These zones seem to be caused by the drying and shrinkage of the marginal tissue as growing and sporulating surfaces have a generally moist nature during periods of high sporulation and growth.
When growth resumes, generative hyphae grow from behind these tufts and develop new tissue. On the under surface of the margin the tufts are usually laterally elongated or united, and this gives the margin a poroid or daedaloid appearance. The hymenium is formed in these depressions. This poroid character was noted by WEIR & HUBERT (1918), and L. W. MILLER (1933) believed that this justified placing the genus Echinodontium in the family Polyporaceae.
After several seasons, these tufts become tooth-like. The darker tips of the teeth remain tufted and are sterile. When growth resumes generative hyphae grow from behind the tufts, give rise to skeletal hyphae, and development of both types of hyphae results in elongation of the tooth. This results in a zoned appearance in the inner tissue of the teeth. Subsequent hymenia are formed on the remains of preceding hymenia and on the new portion of the tooth. This causes the subhymenium to have a stratified nature. The diameter of each tooth increases with the formation of each new hymenial layer until adjacent surfaces touch, forming solid, context-like tissue above the teeth. This tissue becomes the same brick-red color as the true context; however, outlines of buried teeth remain visible.
Basidiocarps are occasionally observed attached to wounds, and to limbs as far as 5-6 feet from the tree bole (WEIR, 1913). Those attached to limbs develop into bell-shaped fruiting bodies. This situation has been observed on trees where the rot column extends into the branches, and a possible explanation is that the branch was living and the basidiocarp developed at a dead branchlet. The rot will extend from 8-16 feet or more above the highest fruiting body. Inactive fruiting bodies blacken with age and eventually fall from the tree. Scars are discernible where fruiting bodies had been attached, and knots associated with the rot column show a red stain similar to the color of the context. THOMAS (1958) presented an excellent analysis of the ecology of this fungus and the associated decay. See NOBLES (1948) for cultural characters.
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