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Page number:30 
Remarks (internal):The smooth peridial surface is vaguely reminiscent of a red-skinned onion, hence the epithet, `cepa'. Often regarded as a variety of S. verrucosum. Although the spores are verrucose, the surface ornament often retains numerous trophocysts. 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Scleroderma cepa Pers.: Pers., Synops. Meth. Fung.: 155 (1801).
Scleroderma cepioides Gray, Nat Arrang. Brit. Pl. 1: 582 (1821).
Scleroderma vulgare Hornem. var. spadiceum sensu W. G. Smith, Synops. Brit. Basid.: 479 (1908).
Scleroderma spadiceum sensu Rea (1922), non S. spadiceum Schaeffer: Pers., op. cit.: . 155 (1801, nom. confusum).
Selected descriptions: Coccia, Migliozzi & Lavarato (1990 : 9-14); Demoulin (1967: 301); Rea (1922: 50); Sebek (1958 : 805 as S. aurantiacum var. spadiceum); Wakefield & Dennis (1950: 274).
Selected illustrations: Sebek (1958 : fig. 201/4-6); Vaillant (1727: 123, p1.16/5-6); Wakefield & Dennis (1950: p1.111/4B).
Diagnostic characters: fruitbody lacking pseudostipe; peridium very thick, smooth, finally cracking; spores with isolated verrucae; clamp-connexions absent.
Fruitbody 2-6 cm diam., subglobose, pyriform or flattened, lacking a stipe-like base but sometimes tapering below. Peridium thick and rigid when fresh, drying thinner, cream-yellow to dark reddish brown, at times with yellow or orange tints on drying, smooth but eventually coarsely cracked with minute squamules above, with irregular apical dehiscence. Gleba at first whitish soon fuscous brown with violaceous tints, finally greyish brown to olivaceous and pulverulent.
Clamp-connexions absent. Basidiospores 9-14 (-15) µm diam. (excluding ornament), globose, dark brown, thick-walled, with a surface ornament of isolated, pyramidal verrucae, 1-2.5 µm high and about 1.0 µm broad at their base; often surrounded by numerous, thin-walled, hyaline trophocysts.
Habitat: prefers sandy ground, often under species of oak (Quercus).
Distribution and frequency: uncommon but widespread in Britain; occurs throughout western Europe and North America.

 
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