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Title:Fungal endophytes in Astromyelon-type (Sphenophyta, Equisetales, Calamitaceae) roots from the Upper Pennsylvanian of France 
Authors:Taylor, T.N.; Krings, M.; Galtier, J.; Dotzler, N. 
Year:2012 
Journal:
 
Volume:171 
First page:9 
Last page:18 
Keywords:ASTROMYELON WILLIAMSON, CARBONIFEROUS; FOSSIL FUNGI; GRAND-CROIX; HOST RESPONSE; INFECTION PATHWAY; INTERACTION 
Abstract:A distinctive fungal endophyte, Cashhickia acuminata nov. gen. et sp., is described from permineralized calamite roots from the Upper Pennsylvanian Grand-Croix cherts of France. Heavily infected roots contain numerous intracellular hyphae in the outer cortex that arise from a meshwork-like mycelium extending between cortical cells. All intracellular hyphae are oriented toward the root center; none occur on the inner periclinal host cell walls. Other roots of the same type show localized infection by this fungus in which isolated cortical cells contain or give rise to intracellular fungal growth. Within the cortical cells are host responses in the form of callosities that indicate the roots were alive at the time of infection. Other endophytes are present in the same host tissue but are less frequent. The discovery of this association provides the first detailed account on the morphology of a Carboniferous fungal root endophyte, as well as the spatial distribution within the host, and infection pathways within the cortical tissues.
 
Associated taxa:
 
Summary:Taylor, T.N.; Krings, M.; Galtier, J.; Dotzler, N. 2012. Fungal endophytes in Astromyelon-type (Sphenophyta, Equisetales, Calamitaceae) roots from the Upper Pennsylvanian of France. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 171:9-18