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Page number:101 
Remarks (internal):R. cynarae emend. occurs on numerous hosts of various genera of the Asteraceae (Cynareae). The morphological features are fairly uniform. The separation of smaller units based on morphological differences and delimited by particular host genera is impossible. R. jurineae was described with rather broad conidia, 6-8 ?m wide. Type material is not preserved, but the examination of various collections of this species from Austria and Romania revealed a conidial width of 2-6 ?m. R. triboutiana is very close to the present species, but differ in having consistently long, slender, cylindrical, septate conidia. R. triboutiana should be maintained as a separate species. R. centaureae-jaceae U. Braun possesses small, mostly aseptate conidia and R. centaureae-atropurpureae Bubák is characterized by small, more or less smooth conidia and often erumpent conidiophores.
Patil and Hegde (1988) observed a favoured developement of R. carthami on sufflower by temperatures higher than 28° combined with high relative air humidity. Rathaiah and Pavgi (1976) investigated the resistance of R. carthami to heat and desiccation. Mujica and Vergara (1980) listed Scolymus hispanicus as host of R. cynarae from Chile. This record is, however, doubtful.
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Ramularia cynarae Sacc., Michelia 1: 536 (1879) emend. U. Braun Fig. 336
Syn.: = R. cardui P. Karst., Meddel. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 14: 109 (1888) [type: on Carduus crispus L., Finland, Wasa, Kapellbacken, VIII. 1856, P. Karsten (not preserved!); neotype: on Carduus crispus L., France, Lothringen, Forbach, À–tinger Tälchen, 11-8-1913, Ludwig (B)].
= R. cirsii Allesch., Ber. Bayr. bot. Ges. 2: 18 (1892) [holotype: on Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Germany, Bavaria, München, Allach, 2-7-1892, Allescher (M)].
= R. cardui var. personatae Allesch., Hedwigia 34: 285 (1895) [holotype: on Carduus personata (L.) Jacq., Germany, Bavaria, Oberammergau, 5-9-1894, Allescher (M)].
R. onopordi C. Massal., Comm. Acc. Sci. med. Nat. Ferrara 1899: 28 (1899) [holotype: on Onopordum acanthium L., Italy, near Ferrara, Sept. 1896, Massalongo (VER)].
= R. jurineae Hollós, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. 5: 467 (1907) [type: on Jurinea mollis (L.) Reichenb, Hungary, Kecskemét (not preserved!); neotype: on Jurinea mollis (L.) Reichenb., Austria, near Baden, VII. 1939, J. Baumgärtner (W, Acqu. 1948, No. 23230)].
= R. cirsii var. cirsii-arvensis C. Massal., Osserv. fitol. in Madonna Verona II: 8 (1908) [holotype: on Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Italy, Tregnago, Saline, Verona, Sept. 1906, Massalongo (VER)].
= R. balcanica Bubák & Ranoj., Annls mycol. 8: 396 (1910) [lectotype: on Cirsium candelabrum Griseb., Serbia, Stubica, 18-9-1909, Ranojevi_ (BPI); isolectotypes: Kab. & Bub., F. imp. exs. 637].
= R. carthami Zaprom., Bolez. Rast. 15(3): 142 (1926) and Mat. po Mikofl. Sredn. Azii I: 32 (1926) [type: on Carthamus tinctorius L., Uzbekistan, Tashkent, 1924, Zaprometov (not preserved!); neotype: on Carthamus tinctorius L., Uzbekistan, Tashkent, 15-8-1926, Zaprometov (LE 73859)].
= R. cousiniae Vasjagina, in Švarcman et al., Fl. spor. Rast. Kazakhstana 8, Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes), 1. Moniliales: 459, Alma-Ata 1973 [holotype: on Cousinia umbrosa Bunge, Kazakhstan, Alma-Ata Obl., Zailijskij Alatau, 10-6-1937, Nevodovskij (AA)].
Lit.: Saccardo (1886: 208-209; 1892: 557; 1895: 605; 1899: 1062; 1904: 1043; 1913: 1320-1321), Lindroth (1902: 39), Lindau (1907: 520-523), Ferraris (1910: 838-839), Mangin (1914), Gonzáles Fragoso (1927: 132, 140), Vasil'evskij & Karakulin (1937: 83-87 p.p.), Vimba (1970: 158-162), Moro_kov'skij et al. (1971: 119-121, 128), Švarcman et al. (1973: 462-464, 467), Osipjan (1975: 342-344), Rathaia & Pavgi (1976, 1977, biology), Brandenburger (1985: 657, 665, 667, 668, 670), Ellis & Ellis (1985: 327, 337, 341), Sagdullaeva et al. (1989: 188, 190, 191).
Ill.: Briosi & Cavara (F. paras. 267, Fig.), Gonzáles Fragoso (1927: 141, Fig. 28), Ellis & Ellis (1985: Pl. 135, Fig. 1412).
Exs.: Briosi & Cav., F. paras. 267. F. exs. suec. 1964. F. latv. exs. 696, 897. Herb. Mycol. Rom. 637, 1483, 2024. Kab. & Bub., F. imp. exs. 391, 637. Maire, Mycoth. boreali-africanae 200. Petr., Mycoth. gen. 1259. Rabenh., F. eur. 3184. Roum., F. gall. exs. 3491.
Leaf spots amphigenous, mainly epiphyllous, subcircular to angular-irregular, sometimes almost diffuse, 1-20 mm diam., at first pale greenish, yellowish-ochraceous, later brown, greyish brown, finally greyish white, margin indefinite or with dark brown border, occasionally with diffuse darker halo, spots sometimes confluent, rarely zonate. Caespituli amphigenous, punctiform to subeffuse, greyish white. Mycelium internal; hyphae colourless, septate, branched, 1.5-3 ?m wide, forming small to moderately large stromata, 10-40 ?m diam., substomatal, occasionally intraepidermal, composed of somewhat swollen hyphal cells, 2-6 ?m wide, hyaline to yellowish. Conidiophores in small to moderately rich fascicles, arising from stromata, emerging through stomata, rarely erumpent through the cuticle, loose to dense, simple, rarely branched, straight subcylindric to flexuous, geniculate-sinuous, sometimes filiform, 5-60 x 2-6(-7) ?m, occasionally longer, up to 140 ?m, continuous or septate, hyaline, smooth; conidial scars somewhat thickened and darkened. Conidia catenate, occasionally in branched chains, ellipsoid-ovoid, subcylindric-fusiform, (5-)10-35(-55) x (1.5-)2-5(-7) ?m, 0-3-septate, hyaline, smooth to faintly rough, ends rounded or attenuated; hila somewhat thickened, darkened.
Holotypus: on Cynara scolymus L., France, Saintes, Brunaud, herb. Saccardo (PAD).
Host range and distribution: on Carduus, Carthamus, Cirsium, Cousinia, Cynara, Echinops, Jurinea, Onopordum, Saussurea, Silybum (Asteraceae, Cynareae), Asia, Caucasus, Europe, N. Africa, N. and S. America - Carduus acanthoides L. (Caucasus, Kabardino-Balkaria; Europe, BG, CZ, D, LV, RO), C. armatus Boiss. & Heldr. (Europe, BG), C. candicans Waldst. & Kit. (Europe, RO), C. crispus L. (Asia, S. Korea; Europe, F, GB, LT, LV, PL, RO, RUS, S, SF), C. comosus Lam. (Europe, BG), C. defloratus L. (Europe, D), C. nutans L. (Central Asia, Kazakhstan; Europe, D, GB, LV, RO, RUS; N. America, USA, UT), C. personata (L.) Jacq. (Europe, A, BG, CZ, D, F, H, RO), C. pycnocephalus L. (Europe, I), C. tenuiflorus (Europe, F, GB), C. sp. (Europe, H), Carthamus tinctorius L. (Asia, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; Israel; Caucasus, Armenia, Georgia, N. Caucasus; Europe, F, RO, RUS, Ukr.; West Indies, Cuba), C. oxyacantha Bieb. (Asia, Iran), Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan; Caucasus, Georgia; Europe, CH, DK, E, EW, F, GB, I, N, LV, RO, RUS, S, SF, Ukr.; N. America, USA, WA), C. candelabrum Griseb. (Europe, RO, YU), C. caput-medusae Somm. & Levier (Caucasus, Georgia), C. ciliata (Murr.) Moench (Caucasus, Armenia, Kabardino-Balkaria), C. eriophorum (L.) Scop. (Caucasus; Europe, F), C. erisithales (Jacq.) Scop. (Europe, RO), C. japonicum DC. (Asia, China), C. helenioides (L.) Hill [C. heterophyllum] (Central Asia, Kazakhstan; Europe, LV, S), C. incanum (S. G. Gmel.) Fisch. (Central Asia, Turkmenistan), C. kamtschaticum Ledeb. (Asia, Far East of RUS), C. oleraceum (L.) Scop. (Europe, A, D, F, LV, PL, RUS), C. oleraceum x palustre (Europe, LV), C. palustre (L.) Scop. (Europe, D), C. pendulum Fisch. (Asia, Far East of RUS), C. segetum Bunge (Asia, China, S. Korea), C. setosum (Willd.) Bess. (Asia, Far East of RUS, China), C. sieversii (Fisch. & C. A. Mey.) Petr. (Central Asia, Kazakhstan), C. turkestanicum (Regel) Petr. (Central Asia, Uzbekistan), C. vulgare (Savi) Ten. (Europe, D, EW, F, RO; N. America, USA, WA), C. spp. (Central Asia, Kirghizia; Europe, BG), Cousinia affinis Schrenk (Central Asia, Kazakhstan), C. triceps Kult. (Central Asia, Uzbekistan), C. umbrosa Bunge (Central Asia, Kazakhstan), Cynara scolymus L. (Caucasus, Georgia, N. Caucasus; Europe, BG, E, F, GB, GR, I, IRL, RUS, Ukr., Crimea, TR; N. Africa, Morocco; N. America, CA; S. America, Chile), Echinops latifolius Tausch (Asia, S. Korea), Jurinea mollis (L.) Reichenb. (Europe, A, H, RO), J. mollis ssp. transsilvanica (Spreng.) Hayek (Europe, EW, RO), J. multiflora (L.) B. Fedtsch. (Central Asia, Kazakhstan), J. robusta Schrenk (Central Asia, Kazakhstan), J. sp. (Central Asia, Kazakhstan), Onopordum acanthium L. (Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia; Caucasus, Kabardino-Balkaria; Europe, GB, D, I, LT, LV, RO, RUS, Ukr.), O. "ceratonicum" (Europe, E), O. illyricum L. (Europe, BG), O. tauricum Willd. (Europe, RO), O. sp. (Central Asia, Kirghizia; Caucasus, Georgia; Europe, H), Saussurea alpina (L.) DC. (Europe, RO), ? S. manshurica Kom. (Asia, Far East of RUS), Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (Europe, DK).
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