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Page number:80 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:. RAMARIA LONGICAULIS (Perk) Corner. 1950. Ann. Bot. Mem. 1: 600.
Clavaria longicaulis Peck. 1898. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 25: 371.
[= Clavaria roseorhiza Coker; nom. herb.]
Type (holotype): NYS - United States, Alabama, Auburn, no date, coll. F.S. Earle, herb. C.H. Peck, s.n. [!]; isotypes: CUP - herb. Atkinson, same data (2 packets) [!].
Colored plate 3, Fig. 2. Pl. 9, Figs. 4, 5; Pl. 10, Figs. 1, 3; text Fig. 22.
Fruitbodies up to 10 cm high, up to 4 cm broad, branched, arbuscular, rooting. Stipe up to 70 x 7 mm, often rooting up to 3 cm deep, white to "cartridge buff" where protected, rubribrunnescent where handled or bruised to dull maroon ("liver brown", "cameo brown", "Mars brown", "chocolate"), brown above where exposed ("buckthorn brown", "Saccardo's umber" or somewhat darker where bruised), often longitudinally rugulose in age, solid. Major branches 2-5, divergent then erect, up to 5 mm thick, terete, brown ("tawny olive", "sepia", "Dresden brown", "Saccardo's umber"), becoming paler upward ("isabella color", "clay color", "tilleul buff") to creamy buff ("light buff", "pale pinkish buff", "warm buff", "vinaceous buff") at the apices; axils narrowly to broadly rounded, apices rounded-acute, somewhat divergent, up to 1 cm long at maturity, often Y-shaped, creamy buff ("warm buff", "isabella color") when young, concolorous with branches when mature. Hymenium obscurely unilateral when fresh, obscurely to obviously unilateral when dry; fertile area smooth, ceraceous, covering ultimate branches but becoming less complete downward; sterile areas randomly scattered above, more regularly on inner sides of branches and decurrent from axils below, darker (a more neutral or reddish brown when dry) than fertile areas, often appearing minutely wooly or granular (at 60X) from spores adherent to surface. Odor none to very mild, sweet, like Ramaria stricta, moderate of fenugreek when dry; taste bitter, astringent.
Under deciduous, Tsuga and pine forests, low elevations, southern Appalachian Mountains, Gulf toast states, United States.
Hyphae of stipe trama 1.5-6.0 µm diam, hyaline, thinwalled, strictly parallel, adherent to agglutinated (preserved), clamped; ampulliform clamps up to 12 µm broad, thin-walled, common; gloeoplerous hyphae occasional, swollen distally, not delimited by clamps. Tramal hyphae of branches identical. Hymenium thickening; basidia 42-50 x 6.5-7.5 µm, clavate, clamped, protruding up to 15 µm at maturity, (2-3)-4-sterigmate; contents homogeneous when young, remaining so, but yellow in mass, sterigmata up to 5.5 µm long, stout, hardly divergent and hardly curved, persisting after spore discharge.
Spores 7.8-9.6 x 5.2-5.9 µm (E = 1.38-1.79; _Em = 1.58; Lm = 8.84 µm), rusty yellow in prints ("ochraceous tawny"), ovoid to broadly ellipsoid; contents homogeneous, aguttulate; wall 0.2-0.3 µm thick, moderately cyanophilous; apiculus a short, thin-walled extension of endosporium protruding from an eccentric collar of exosporium, acyanophilous; ornamentation of scattered long (up to 3 µm long), sharp, cyanophilous spines becoming smaller toward the apiculus.
Macrochemical reactions: Branch sections positive in FSW (deep slate green), FSA (deep blue green), GUA (obscure blue), KOH (deep brown, leaching yellow), NOH (leaching salmon pink); no data for PYR, ANO, ANW, IKI.
OBSERVATIONS: Superficially, R. longicaulis, R. murrillii and R. pancaribbea appear quite similar in the field. The first, however, exhibits greyish-tan branch tips and usually
a white pseudorhiza which quickly turns sordid pink, and then vinaceous on handling. Ramaria murrillii shows bright golden branch tips, and a pseudorhiza replete with copious stringy rhizomorphic strands, white fruitbodies of R. pancaribbea have pallid ochraceous apices (violaceous when young) and naked bases. Microscopically, the spores of R. pancaribbea are thick-walled, golden and spiny-pteroid, separating the species immediately from the spinulose or verruculose spores of the others.
Coker used a herbarium name, Clavaria roseorhiza, for this fungus when he collected it several times under mixed woods in Chapel Hill in the 1910's. Several collections are clearly pseudorhizal, the rooting portion apparently pinkish or fleshy in color. The microscopic details of these specimens, however, do not depart from the norm for the taxon, and the fruitbodies match in color, stature, etc.
The hymenium in R. longicaulis becomes strongly agglutinated by maturity as well as greatly thickened. This results in extreme difficulty in observing basidial details. It would appear that the basidium initially may be somewhat thickwalled, and golden-refringent, but that the basidium elongates just before spore production, the elongated portion being hyaline and thin-walled. Few basidia reach maturity simultaneously, for it is often rare to observe sterigmata and thus to ascertain their number per basidium. Furthermore, the golden-refringent aspect of the thickened hymenium entices the observer into thinking that the basidia are so when mature, just as are those with two sterigmata, drawing the observer into an incorrect identification. Basidia from very near a branch apex are usually not agglutinated and often can be more easily teased apart for accurate observation.
The type specimen has been described (Petersen & Olexia, 1967) and its spores illustrated (Petersen, 1967). Although described by Peck, the specimen is from Alabama, well within the range of the taxon.
With the long-stemmed stature, unilateral hymenium and slender branches, supported by sporographic data (see Fig. 3), it is probable that R. longicaulis is a relative of some of
the slender, neotropical taxa (i.e., R. insigne, R. gigantea, etc.). If so, the thin-walled spores would place it closer to R. americana than to R. grandis.
From Corner's commentary and herbarium notations, I surmise that this name included a wide range of fruitbody variation but rather similar spore size and morphology. On this basis he drew attention to similarities with R. cokeri (as R. zippelii var. gracilis) and R. eumorpha (as R. invalii), and eventually (1970: 244) placed the name in synonymy under R. guyanensis. The range for R. guyanensis was thus extended to a pantropical belt from Borneo to Jamaica, and into eastern North America. Teng (1939) reported R. longicaulis from maritime southern China, but the organism involved was probably R. cokeri.
Although I disclaim absolute proof, I have seen only 2spored basidia on the type specimen of R. guyanensis, and this alone would separate it from R. longicaulis. More than this, however, the spores of R. guyanensis (Em = 1.39) are relatively broader than those of R. longicaulis (Em = 1.58), with much thicker wall, and the fruitbodies of R. guyanensis are much more gracile in all parts than those of R. longicaulis. When the two are viewed at the same time, there is no difficulty with their separation.
Parmasto's (1965: Fig. 81) figure of the taxon was taken from Coker (1923: pl. 72, righthand fruitbody). Unfortunately, the plate represents R. decurrens var. australis, which is
quite similar to several Eurasian temperate taxa. It is doubtful, therefore, that R. longicaulis fruits in the Soviet Union. Instead, it seems restricted to the southeastern United States.
Taxon name: