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Page number:131 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:RAMARIA EUMORPHA (Karst.) Corner. 1950. Ann. Bot. Mem. 1: 575.
Clavariella subspinulosa subsp. eumorpha Karsten. 1882. Bidr. K˵nn. Finl. Nat. Folk. 37: 185.
Clavariella eumorpha (Karst.) Karsten. 1889. Bidr. K˵nn. Finl. Nat. Folk 48: 388.
Clavaria spinulosa subsp. eumorpha (Karst.) Saccardo. 1888. Syll. Fung. 6: 701.
= Clavaria invalii Cotton & Wakefield.1919. Brit. Mycol. Soc. Trans. 6: 176.
Clavaria flaccida subsp. invalii (Cott. & Wakef.) Konrad & Maublanc. 1928. Icon. Sel. 5: pl. 488 + text [misapplied].
Ramaria invalii (Cott. & Wakef.) Donk.1933. Mededeel. Bot. Mus. Univ. Utrecht 9: 113.
Clavaria flaccida var. invalii (Cott. & Wakef.) J. Favre. 1948. Mater. Fl. Crypt. Suisse 10: 32.
[= Clavaria abietina "small, non-virescent form" Coker. 1923. Clav. U.S. Canada, 184, pls. 70, 88, Figs. 20, 21; nom. illegit. ]
[= Clavaria abietina "non virescent form of pines" Coker. 1923. Clav. U.S. Canada, 182, pls. 69, 89, Figs. 6, 7: nom. illeg.]
[= Ramaria idahoensis Petersen, nom. herb.]
[= Ramaria prolonga Petersen, nom. herb.]
[= Ramaria washingtonensis Petersen, nom. herb.]
[= Ramaria flavorhizalis Petersen, nom. herb.]
Type (holotype): H - Finland, Mustiala, 1881, leg. Karsten, s.n. [!].
Colored Plate 2, Figs. 1-3; Pl. 4, Figs. 4-6; Pl. 13, Figs. 4-6; text Fig. 53.
Fruitbodies up to 8 x 6 cm, generally fusiform to subspherical in outline, repeatedly branched. Stipe portion ranging from distinct (up to 20 x 8 mm) to (rarely) almost absent (branches occurring at substrate level, or more than one short stipe arising in a densely cespitose habit), usually concolorous with branches or darker ('verona brown","Saccardo's umber", "sayal brown", "buckthorn brown"), but commonly with areas of dull pallid olive ("isabella color", "tawny olive") on surface, soft, not brittle, drying punky to soft-friable; basal mycelial tomentum off-white to pale yellow ("cartridge buff", "cream buff", "chamois"), extensive, as arachnoid or webbed plate-like sheets between slender (< 1 mm thick) yellowish rhizomorphic strands; rhizomorphs ephemerally bright yellow in 15% KOH. Branches congested, not uncommonly anastomosed, ascending, up to 2.5 mm thick, always with central branches - longer (higher) than outer branches to render a variety of fruitbody shapes; lower branches when young light ocher ("ochraceous buff", "yellow ocher"), when mature somewhat darker and duller ("ochraceous tawny", "mikado brown", "honey yellow", "clay color", "cartridge buff"); axils narrowly rounded; apices 1-2 mm long, awl-shaped, often curled when dry, "buff yellow" when young, becoming "warm buff", "cream buff", "antimony yellow", "ochraceous buff", "light buff", "honey color" in age. Under conifers (Pinus, Picea, Abies) and broad-leaved (Fagus, Quercus) forests; northern Europe, cool parts of North America.
Odor none or mild, fresh, perhaps farinaceous; taste musty, mildly bitter, perhaps of tallow.
Macrochemical reactions: positive in FSW, FSA, FCL, ANO, KOH, NOH; weakly positive in GUA; sometimes weakly positive in ANW, PYR; negative in IKI, PYR.
Hyphae of rhizomorphic strands as in branch trama, up to 7.5 µm; ampulliform clamps up to 12 µm broad, broadly ovoid to subspherical, unornamented; wall up to 1.5 µm thick over area adjacent to clamp. Crystals negligible.
Branch tramal hyphae up to 8 µm diam, thin-walled, hyaline, clamped, loosely parallel, not adherent; ampulliform clamps common, ellipsoid to ovate; crystals common, irregularly quadrilateral to amorphous. Hymenium not greatly thickening; basidia 30-45 x 7.5-9 µm, clavate, clamped; contents homogeneous when young, in age with many small, scattered dull guttules; sterigmata (2)-4, long spindly, straight, hardly divergent.
Spores (Fig. 52) 6.3-10 x 3.3-4.8 µm (E = 1.67-2.44; _Em = 1.94; Lm = 7.80 µm), broadly lacrymiform to broadly comma-shaped, "ochraceous buff" ("yellow other", "antimony yellow") in prints, yellow-other under bright field, roughened; contents homogeneous or with a single dull guttule; wall thin to slightly thickened (up to 0.3 µm) irregularly in median regions; ornamentation of numerous, short (up to 1 µm long), cyanophilous, conical, sharp spines scattered randomly over total spore surface.
OBSERVATIONS: Fruitbodies produced under Pinus and Fagus seem to be larger and more fusiform than those under Picea or Abies. The latter also have a tendency to show dull olive shades in the stipe and lower branches. Fruitbodies under hardwoods show little basal felt, but more rhizomorphic strands of paler color (off-white). The causes of fruitbody stature differences (short, stout, arbuscular vs. elongate, fusiform) cannot be adequately explained. At first, I thought that the fusiform fruitbody type occurred on pine litter in warm climates, until it was found on other conifer substrates in the northwestern United States. It now appears that the stockier, more congested form may be limited to Picea and/or Abies, and even then only in cooler climates.
The longer, fusiform type also seems paralleled by spore differences. There is a tendency to produce longer spores with no change in width. Consequently, in such specimens (i.e., TENN 31397) the _Em value is significantly higher than normal and the Lm value up to one micrometer longer than "normal". Like fruitbody stature, however, a complete cline of intermediate values and dimensions can be found so as to render meaningless any nomenclatural recognition of the extremes. They are not separable by any other characters, and even fusiform fruitbodies can often produce fully normal spore statistics.
Cotton & Wakefield (1919) correctly analyzed Fries's (1821) concept of the taxa in this complex. Under Clavaria abietina, Fries included a non-virescent form, and a smaller virescent organism. At the same time, Fries named C. flaccida and C. crispula as distinct from the foregoing. His primary interpretation of Persoon's name C. abietina not being true to Persoon's description, Fries's non-virescent form seemingly was in need of a new name, and Cotton & Wakefield filled the need with C. invalii. Although they reported the taxon as rare in England, it would appear that R. eumorpha occurs widely over North America and northern Europe, and may well be circumboreal.
A number of characters mark the species, some of them "negative". First; fruitbody stature is always stocky, even though shape varies apparently with substrate. Under Picea (as in Scandinavia, England and parts of North America), stature is short, with congested branches and more or less spherical profile (as also reported by Cotton & Wakefield, 1919). Under Pinus (as in eastern North America), branches are much longer, and fruitbody profile is almost fusiform. This aspect was called R. flaccida by Donk (personal communication) in both Europe and North America in his later years. Both forms occur at lower elevations, and the shorter under spruce on the mountain tops.
Second; fruitbodies always are accompanied by a basal felt or mycelial mat. The mat may be off-white (usually) to rather strong yellow (in western North America), and may dissipate into ill-defined rhizomorphic webs or strands, but the mat or felt is virtually never missing. Fruitbodies of most other taxa form rhizomorphic strands without the felty mat.
Third; flesh of the fruitbody is soft when fresh, not brittle, and dries friable. The weight of dried fruitbodies is very light compared with other taxa. The cause of this condition may be the inflated, thin-walled, non-adherent tramal hyphae, rather unique in the group.
Fourth; when dry pieces of branches are placed in 2% KOH and crushed well for microscopic examination, a pale apricot or peachy pigment is leached into the liquid. This may escape the inexperienced eye.
Fifth; although ochraceous when fresh, fruitbodies very often dry to a dull rusty orange color, especially the upper branches and apices. This condition is very variable, especially in badly dried specimens or fruitbodies on very poor substrates (woody debris, deep moss, etc.), but the dried color is found only very rarely in other taxa.
Sixth; white negative in value, fruitbodies do not show the characteristic blue-green bruising reaction so consistent for R. abietina. Hence even small, depauperate fruitbodies of R. eumorpha can be distinguished both fresh and dried from those of R. abietina.
Schild (1975) has used the name R. corrugata (Karst.) Schild for this organism. The type and description of this name do not agree with R. eumorpha, however, although Karsten specimens dating after 1889, do so. This problem is taken up here under R. myceliosa var. microspora (q.v.). From Schild's commentary, he examined topotype material, but did not specify a type nor examine a verified holo- or lectotype.
Singh's (1977) report of R. invalii would seem to fit R. eumorpha well. Moreover, with a general North Temperate range, it would be expected in temperate areas of the Himalayas. Conversely, Singh's (1977) report of R. flaccida, of similar description, bears spores too small for R. eumorpha.
Coker (1923), unable to sort out Fries's senses of Clavaria abietina, and finding "intermediate" forms between C. flaccida (ss. Coker) and C. abietina, resorted to English phrase names to bring some order from chaos. He did not succeed, however, for he misinterpreted R. flaccida and used R. abietina (under Clavaria) as a catch-all taxon. Furthermore, based on misidentified material from England, Coker considered Clavaria invalii synonymous with R. suecica, and therefore did not have the former name at his disposal for spiny-spored taxa. In fact, Coker's "small, non-virescent form" of C. abietina is mostly the same as R. invalii, that is, a small, olive-suffused form of R. eumorpha occurring under short-needled conifers (hemlock in the north, spruce and fir throughout the range). Coker's C. abietina "nonvirescent form of pines" is the larger, more arbuscular form of R. eumorpha more typical of the taxon as described by Karsten from Finland. Nonetheless, Coker's confusion served as a model for subsequent authors, including Corner, and the confusion has persisted until now.
 
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