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Page number:88 
Remarks (internal):Similar species: Penicillium expansum has ellipsoidal conidia and usually smooth stipes and is not crustose. Penicillium commune has smaller colony diameters, not a deep yellow reverse on YES and is not crustose. Penicillium palitans has smaller colonies, darker and greener condia and is not crustose. 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Penicillium crustosum Thom, Penicillia: 399 (1930).
Conidiophores: Terverticillate, appressed elements, born from subsurface hyphae
Conidia: Smooth-walled, globose to subglobose, 3-4 ?m.
Phialides: Cylindrical tapering to a distinct collulum, 9-12 x 2.5-3 ?m
Metulae: Cylindrical, 10-15 x 3-3.5 ?m
Rami: Cylindrical, 15-25 x 3.5-4 ?m
Stipes: Rough-walled, 200-400 x 3.5-4.5 ?m
Synnemata or fasciculation: Weakly fasciculate
Sclerotia: None
Colony texture: Velutinous to weakly fasciculate, becoming crustose
Conidium colour on CYA: Dull green to grey green or blue green at the colony margin
Exudate droplets on CYA: Copious, clear or brown
Reverse colour on CYA: Cream-coloured to yellow brown
Reverse colour on YES: Strongly yellow
Diffusible colour: Pale brown or none
Ehrlich reaction: None
Odour and volatile metabolites: Ethyl acetate, isobutanol, ethyl propanoate, isopentanol, dimethyldisulphide, ethyl isobutanoate, isobutyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, ethyl isopentanoate, isopentyl acetate, styrene, ethyl pentanoate, 3-octanone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-methyl-isoborneol, geosmin.
Extrolites: 1) Penitrem A-G, 2) Roquefortine C-E, 3) Terrestric acid and viridicatic acid, 4) Viridicatins (cyclopeptin, dehydrocyclopeptin, cyclopenin, cyclopenol, viridicatin, viridicatol), 5) Hadacidin, 6) Andrastin A
Growth on creatine: Very good
Acid and base production on creatine: Good acid production followed by base production
Growth on UNO: Very good
Growth on nitrite: Poor
Abiotic factors:
Diam 1 week, 25°C: CYA: 32-46 mm; MEA: 25 -46 mm; YES: 40-56 mm; CREA: 22-35 mm; Cz: 29-32 mm, OAT: 28-38 mm: CYAS: 29-39 mm; CzBS: 25 -28 mm; CzP: 0-3 mm; UNO: 19-23 mm; DG18: 29-32 mm
Diam CYA, 1 week: 15°C: 28-31 mm; 30°C: 15-26 mm; 37°C: 0 mm
CYA/CYAS: 1.3 [1.1-1.5]
CYA15°C/CYA 25°C: 0.7 [0.7-0.7]
CYA30°C/CYA 25°C: 0.5 [0.4-0.6]
CZBS/CZ: 0.9 [0.8-0.9]
CZP/CZ: 0.1 and four at 0 [0-0.1]
Diagnostic features: Penitrem A, roquefortine C, terrestric acid, viridicatin, smooth-walled conidia, crustose on CYA and MEA after 7-10 days, high growth rate, good growth on CREA. Strong sporulation and high growth rate on YES agar.
Type: Herb. IMI 091917
Culture ex type: IBT 5528 = IBT 6175 = IMI 091917 = FRR 1669 = ATCC 52044 = NCTC 4002, ex lemon, Aberdeen, Scotland (T)
Distribution: Panglobal: Denmark, Norway, Germany, Slovenia, Greece, Bulgaria, Azoan Islands, Portugal, Georgia & New Mexico (USA), Kazachstan, Victoria B.C., Indonesia; Canada, Australia, New Zealand.
Ecology and habitats: Pecans, walnuts, chestnuts, apples, cream cheese, blue cheese, salami, indoor air, coffee beans, maize, cotton seed, compound feeds, cardboard.
Biotechnological applications: None
Biodeterioration & phytopathology: Penicillium crustosum can produce a weak rot in apples (Frisvad 1981). It is a major degrader of compound feeds for animals and cheeses.
Mycotoxicoses and mycotoxins: Penitrem A and roquefortine C from Penicillium crustosum growing on cheese or nuts have been implicated in toxicoses of dogs (Richard et al. 1981; Richard & Arp 1979; Puls & Ladyman 1988; Hocking et al. 1988; Naudé et al. 2002). The case of mycotoxicosis of a man after drinking beer (Cole et al. 1983; Cysewski et al. 1975) was caused by Penicillium carneum, not Penicillium crustosum). Cattle have also been intoxicated with penitrem A from Penicillium crustosum (Wilson et al. 1968; Dorner et al. 1984). Strains identified as Penicillium palitans (Ciegler 1969), Penicillium commune (Mintzlaff et al. 1972; Wagener et al. 1980), Penicillium lanosocoeruleum (Wells & Cole 1977), Penicillium cyclopium (Wilson 1968; Ciegler & Pitt 1970; Vesonder et al. 1980), Penicillium martensii, Penicillium olivinoviride, Penicillium puberulum (Ciegler & Pitt 1970) producing penitrem A and roquefortine C were all Penicillium crustosum (Pitt 1979b, Frisvad 1989). The production of both toxins is very consistent in Penicillium crustosum (El-Banna & Leistner 1988; Frisvad and Filtenborg 1989)
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