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Remarks (internal):Herein, the recorded host is treated in a broad sense to include M. aquifolium and M repens Lindl. Its distribution includes south-western Alberta and southern British Columbia with DAO records as far north as Williams Lake in the latter province. Rust is not known in the northern part of this area, being found (DAOM) only to the Kamloops - Revelstoke area. Host distribution ranges southward and DAOM specimens of the rust follow through Washington, Idaho and Montana to Arizona and New Mexico. Cumminsiella mirabilissima is a western species. It is found at ports of entry in Ontario and Quebec only on intercepted nursery plants from Europe (ex Belgium, DAOM 24068; ex Germany, DAOM 58223; ex Holland, DAOM 43093) or on nursery stock recently imported; it has not become established. Rust was however imported from North America into Europe in the early 1920's (Wilson, M. and D.M. Henderson. The British rust fungi. Cambridge, Univ. Press. p. 301. 1966) where it did become established. Thence it began arriving back into eastern North America (e.g. Ontario, Quebec) beginning in the late 1940's; it was even brought back to British Columbia in 1956 on nursery stock imported from Holland.
The aecial state was described from European material (Wilson, M. Ann. Myc. 28: 225. 1930). It was not known in North America when Arthur published his manual (Arthur, J.C. Manual of the rusts in United States and Canada. p. 75. Purdue Research Foundation, Lafayette, Indiana. 1934) although his treatment included an aecial description. Presumably this was based on European material. Aecia on leaves and fruit are clearly depicted in colour by Punja and Ormrod (Can. Pl. Dis. Surv. 59: 22-24. 1977) from material occurring naturally in the Vancouver area.
Other rust species attack Berberidaceae (cf. Puccinia podophylli Fungi Canadenses No. 289). The very common and destructive stem rust of cereals, Puccinia graminis Pers., produces aecia on Berberidaceae but can be distinguished by the apically thickened aeciospore walls.
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Cumminsiella mirabilissima (Peck) Nannf., in Lundell & Nannf., Fungi Exs. Suecia. Fasc. XXXI-XXXII, p. 3 (No. 1507a). Almquist & Wiksells, Uppsala. 1947.
= Uromyces sanquineus Peck, Bot. Gaz. 4:128. 1879 (based on II).
= Puccinia mirabilissima Peck, Bot. Gaz. 6:226. 1881 (based on III).
= Uropyxis mirabilissima (Peck) P. Magn., Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 10:319. 1892.
= Uropyxis sanginea Arth., N. Amer. Flora 7:155. 1907. (Art. 59.6, I.C.B.N.) as "(Peck) Arthur" but based on II & III.
= Cumminsiella sanquinea (Arth.) Arth., Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 60:475. 1933. (Art. 33.2, I.C.B.N.) as "(Peck) Arth. comb. nov."
Pycnia yellow, epiphyllous or fructicolous in tight circular groups, in cross-section subepidermal, 25-28 x 25-27 µm diameter. Pycniospores hyaline, ellipsoid to ovoid 5-7 x 3-4 µm. Aecia yellow-orange when fresh, hypophyllous or fructicolous in compact circular groups, cupulate. Aeciospores globoid to ellipsoid, 15-24 x 13-21 µm; wall colourless, evenly 1.0-1.5 µm thick, verrucose with warts 0.5 µm high, and 3-5 pore plugs per spore ca. 3-5 µm diameter. Uredinia amphigenous but mostly hypophyllous scattered light brown, pulverulent. Urediniospores obovate, obpyriform to ± clavate, 20-40(-45) 16-28 µm; wall pale yellow, 0.7-2.0 µm thick and usually to 3 µm at apex, completely verrucose with warts 0.5-1.5 µm high, 0.3 µm diam. and 0.5-1.0 µm apart, pores 3-4 ± equatorial with pale shallow caps. Telia dark brown, forming from uredinia. Teliospores broadly ellipsoid, rounded at both ends conspicuously constricted at septum, 22-42(-44) x 18-30 µm; wall bilaminate, inner layer orange-brown, 1.0-2.0 µm thick, outer layer paler, 0.5-1.0 µm thick but slightly thicker at pores to 3.0 µm, uniformly verrucose; warts 0.3-0.7 µm high, 0.5-1.0 µm diam., 0.5-1.5 µm apart; pores 2 per cell 1/4-3/4 depressed from apex in upper cell and septal to 3/4 depressed from septum in lower cell and with pale shallow caps; pedicel colourless, persistent, to 150 µm long.
Host: Berberidaceae: Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt.
Distribution: Alberta, British Columbia [Ontario and Quebec from interception or nursery survey only].
 
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