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Remarks (internal):This is the first genuine lichenicolous species of the genus Cladosporium Link. The conidiophores are confined to apothecia of the living host lichen. Cladosporium lichenicola Linds. is an invalid, doubtful name, and C. lichenum Keissl. has been excluded and assigned to Pseudocercospora Speg. (HAWKSWORTH 1979, HEUCHERT et al. 2005). C. licheniphilum is easily distinguishable from most other species of Cladosporium by having conidiophores with numerous characteristic terminal branches. The fungicolous species C. gallicola B. Sutton, known from North America on galls and aecia of Cronartium, Endocronartium and Pucciniastrum species, is morphologically similar, but differs in forming well-developed stromata, 45-130 x 30-90 µm, and larger conidia, up to 29 x 8 µm, with up to 4 septa (HEUCHERT et al. 2005). Among saprobic Cladosporium spp., there is no morphologically comparable species, but some foliicolous taxa exhibit a similar ramification type of the conidiophores. C. populicola K. Schub. & U. Braun, a leaf-spotting species on Populus tremula in Germany, resembles C. licheniphilum, but differs in forming stromata, 15-45 µm diam., and narrower conidia, 3-5 µm wide (SCHUBERT 2005, SCHUBERT & BRAUN 2006). C. syringicola K. Schub. & U. Braun, on Syringa ´chinensis in Germany, is distinguished by having dimorphic conidiophores, i.e., short, paler, unbranched and long, pigmented, branched conidiophores, resembling those of C. licheniphilum, are formed (SCHUBERT 2005, SCHUBERT & BRAUN 2006). C. ushuwaiensis Speg., known from Argentina on Berberis ilicifolia, with a similar ramification type of the conidiophores can be easily discriminated from C. licheniphilum by its very long and wide conidiophores, up to 310 x 15 µm, and integrated, intercalary conidiogenous cells (SCHUBERT 2005). 
Description type:Original description 
Description:Colonies confined to apothecia of the host lichen, caespitose, reddish brown, somewhat shiny. Mycelium immersed; hyphae branched, sinuous, 5-8 µm wide, brown, septate, with constrictions, thick-walled, smooth, hyphal cells around the conidiophores swollen, subglobose to polygonal, about 12 µm diam. or 7-17 x 4-10 µm, thick-walled, dark brown, smooth. Stroma lacking. Conidiophores solitary or in small, loose tufts, arising from internal swollen hyphal cells, erect, straight to slightly curved, subcylindrical to slightly geniculate-sinuous, unbranched to usually branched, 1-3 times, ramification usually terminal, divergent, branchlets short to moderately long, 10-55 x 4-6.5 µm, conidiophores (65-)90-190 x 5-8 µm, somewhat wider at the base and gradually narrowed towards the apex, 5-14-septate, usually not constricted at the septa, dark brown, paler towards the apex, thick-walled, but wall of the terminal conidiogenous cells thinner, smooth, often with a single or few distant enteroblastic-percurrent proliferations; conidiogenous cells integrated, terminal, occasionally intercalary, (7-)9-20 µm long, subcylindrical-conic to slightly geniculate-sinous, proliferation sympodial, with a single or usually numerous, up to 12, coronate conidiogenous loci, 1-2 µm diam. Conidia catenate, usually in branched acropetal chains, subglobose, limoniform to ellipsoid-subcylindrical, 0-1-septate, aseptate conidia 3.5-8 x 3-5 µm, septate conidia 7-13 x 5-7 µm, usually not constricted at the septa, pale brown or yellowish brown, wall thin to slightly thickened, smooth or almost so, ends more or less rounded or slightly attenuated, with a single basal and 1-4 terminal hila, coronate, 0.5-2 µm diam., occasionally with microcyclic conidiogenesis, true ramoconidia s. str. (with truncate base, but without coronate hilum) lacking or very rare. 
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