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Remarks (public):For a complete description including images see 
Remarks (internal):The disease is widespread in greenhouses throughout the world. Chemical control has been obtained using sulphur dust (9: 654; 10: 534; 11: 28; 40: 110). When zineb was combined with sulphur still better control was obtained. Other chemicals which have given promising results include lime sulphur (10:798), caffaro copper sulphur dusts Z.P.C./48 and C.B./1309 (29: 260), zineb, ziram, copper 8-quinolinolate (bioquin) and orthocide (32:561; 40: 110). Dithane Z-78 has been found very effective as a spray and reported to be even more effective when combined with NiSO4 (33: 425, 42: 90). The suitability of using antibiotics (fungicidin + actidione) in vitro as disinfecting agents has been investigated and established (41: 715). Varieties developed for wilt resistance were also found to be resistant to rust (31: 553). The best means of prevention still are selection of resistant varieties and careful cultivation.
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Uromyces dianthi (Pers.) Niessl., Verh. Plat. Ver. Brunn 10: 162, 1872.
= Uredo dianthi Pers., 1801.
= Uromyces caryophyllinus Winter, 1882.
= Aecidium euphorbiae-gerardianae Fisch., 1904.
= Additional synonyms are given in Sydow & Sydow, Monographia Uredinearum II: 210-211, 1910.
Pycnia amphigenous, systemic, globose, 130-160 µm diam., abundant on the lower leaves. Aecia hypophyllous, scattered, round or somewhat oval, up to c. 0,5 mm wide, orange yellow; peridium colourless, margin erect or slightly recurved, coarsely erose, peridial cells 19-25 µm wide, outer wall 7-10 µm thick, transversely striate, inner wall thin, 3,5 µm thick. Aecidiospores angularly globose, 16-22 µm diam.; wall colourless, 1 µm or less thick, finely verruculose. Urediaamphigenous, also on stems, scattered or in groups, oval to irregular, often confluent, 0,5-1,5 mm diam., cinnamon brown. Urediospores broadly ellipsoid, 20-24 x 24-30 µm; wall golden brown, 2,5-3 µm thick, strongly echinulate; pores 3-4, equatorial. Telia like uredia but dark brown. Teliospores ellipsoid, 20-23 x 25-29 µm, rounded above and below; wall light chestnut brown, 3 µm thick, with hyaline papillae over the germ pore, finely verrucose; pedicel colourless, short.
Hosts: Pycnia and aecia on Euphorbia, uredia and telia on Dianthus, Arenaria, Bufonia, Gypsophila, Lycnis, Saponaria, Tunica, Saxifraga and Silene.
Numerous other rust fungi have been recorded on these hosts but only 10 restricted to Dianthus are discussed here. Of these 6 are species of Puccinia which have two-celled teliospores. Four species of Uromyces have been recorded: Uromyces inaequialtus Lasch. (= Uromyces silenes (Schwein.) Fuckel) differs in having verruculose urediospores and smooth-walled subgloboid teliospores with pedicels up to 80 µm long; Uromyces cristatus Schroet. & Niessl is readily distinguished by its coarsely verruculose teliospores; Uromyces formosus Syd. has verruculose urediospores and large smooth teliospores; and Uromyces dianthicaryophylli Monochot, recorded from France and Algeria, has smaller urediospores with 3 equatorial germ pores and smaller teliospores (21-25 x 16-19 µm).
Disease: Carnation rust. On leaves and stems of carnation and other members of the Caryophyllaceae. lt occurs on cultivated carnation all the year round, causing much injury. The aecidial host is deformed by the rust and affected plants often do not flower.
Geographical distribution: Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Morocco, Mozambique, Rhodesia, S. Africa, Tanzania,
Zambia); Asia (Ceylon, China, Formosa, India, Israel, Japan, Russia, Turkey), Europe (Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, Italy, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Rumania, Yugoslavia); N. America (Alaska, Canada, U.S.A.); S. America (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Venezuela); W. Indies (Jamaica); Australasia, (Australia, New Zealand).
Physiological specialization: Infection experiments have been carried out with aecidiospores from Euphorbia gerardiana by Fischer (1910, 1912), Treboux (1912) and Guyot (1938-39). Later Guyot (1953) showed that E. nicaeensis was also an aecidial host. As a result of inoculations, the existence of 4 specialised rust forms have been recognised on species of Dianthus, Saponaria ocymoides and Tunica prolifera. A summary of the investigations has been tabulated by Gaumann (1959).
Transmission: By urediospores through contact with man and his implements. The spread of this rust from one country to another has been attributed to the introduction of imported carnation from infected areas. It is said to have been introduced into Great Britain on imported carnation in 1890. So far the aecidium has not been known outside Europe and the rust maintains itself in the uredial state. Tests carried out have shown that urediospores can remain viable for a period of 185 days (4: 122).
Literature: Fischer, Zbl. Bakt. II, 28: 141, 1910; Fischer, Myk. Zbl. 1: 1, 1912; Gaumann, Die Rostpilze Mitteleuropas, p. 330, 1959; Guyot, Ann. Ecole. Nat. Agric. Crignon IIII: 61, 1938-1939; Guyot, Uredineana 4: 333, 1953; Treboux, Annls mycol. 10: 563, 1912.
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