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Remarks (internal):
Notes: Distinguished from D. sapinea Fuckel, recorded on Pinus, by the often non-septate, large, rough-walled spores. Although normally regarded as a pathogen of trees growing in unfavourable locations, losses caused to pine in the Southern hemisphere have at times been reported as serious. Some species (Pinus niger, P. radiata, P. sylvestris) are more susceptible than others (P. caribaea, P. patula). Control measures depend on selection of varieties best adapted to local conditions. Premature thinning of pine stands in S. Africa reduced disease incidence (35: 405). Chemical control of ornamental plantings using Bordeaux spray has been reported (18: 643; 35: 132; 47, 2271e). Actidione was preferred to Cu fungicides for control of infection of hail-damaged pine when weather conditions delayed treatment (48, 299).
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Diplodia pinea (Desm.) Kickx, Fl. Flandres 1: 397, 1867.
= Sphaeria pinea Desm., 1842.
= Sphaeropsis pinea Berk. & Broome, 1865.
= Botryodiplodia pinea (Desm.) Petr., 1922.
= Macrophoma pinea (Desm.) Petrak & Syd., 1926.
= Phoma pinastri Lév., 1846.
= Sphaeropsis pinastri (Lév. ) Sacc., 1884.
= Sphaeropsis pinastri Cooke & Ellis, 1878.
= Sphaeropsis ellisii Sacc., 1884.
= Sphaeropsis micromegala Berk. & M.A. Curtis, 1874.
= Diplodia conigena Desm., 1846.
= Sphaeropsis pinicola Speg., 1910.
= Diplodia pinastri Grove, 1916.
= Granulodiplodia pinea (Desm.) Zambettakis, 1954.
For further synonyms see Petrak & Sydow, Reprium nov. Spec. Regni reg. 42: 116-117, 1926.
Pycnidia on bark, shoots, leaves and cone scales, solitary to gregarious, initially immersed, becoming erumpent, black, ovoid, opening by apical ostioles; wall multicellular with heavily pigmented cells around the neck region. Conidia yellowish-brown, eventually turning dark brown, rough-walled, oblong to clavate, rounded at apex, basal end blunt, usually non-septate, later some become 1-septate, 30-45 x 10-16 µm.
Hosts: On Pinus species. Also on Abies excelsa, Araucaria cunninghamii, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Cupressus macrocarpa, Cupressus lusitanica, Cupressus sempervirens, Picea abies, Pseudotusga menziesii, P. taxifolia and Thuja orientalis.
Diseases: Tip and twig blight, stag-head, red top, bud-wilt and seedling collar rot of conifers. Causes stunting of new growth, browning of needles, bending or curling of young shoots and discoloration and death of parts of the crown. Also affecting germination of Pinus seed and causing blight and dieback of coniferous seedlings in thc nursery. Frequently found as a wound parasite of injured or weak trees causing bark cankers and dieback of branches and as a saprophyte causing blue-stain of sap-wood of fallen or freshly cut timbers (17: 150; 36: 436; 41: 339).
Geographical distribution: Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rhodesia, S. Africa, Tanzania, Uganda); Asia (Japan, Malaysia, Thailand); Australasia & Oceania (Australia, New Zealand); Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, Sweden, U.K.); North America (Canada, U.S.A.); Central America & West Indies (Jamaica), South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay). (CMI Map 459, 1969).
Physiological specialization: Not known.
Transmission: The pathogen is disseminated as spores by wind, rain and in fluid secreted by the pine spittle-bug, Aphrophora parallela and as mycelium on seed of Pinus (16: 219; 21: 398). Infection may take place through natural infection courts such as leaf traces or cones and cone-stalks (5: 708; 48, 3187) as well as through living tissues following wounding (31: 1; 44, 889; 48, 3187) or damage from hail (8: 535; 16: 219; 20: 150), frost (21: 398; 40: 388) or insects (pine spittle-bug, 21: 398; bark beetles, Myelophilus piniperda, 14: 727) or attack by rust, Cronartiurn ribicola, causing progressive wilt in Pinus halepensis (25: 493) or by drought (14: 65) or other unfavourable growing conditions (13: 426, 553; 16: 148). Gilmour found that the amount of infection in P. radiata appeared to be correlated with trunk wounding and varied with the type of pruning tool used: secateurs, 12%; axe, 48%, slasher, 68% (44, 889). The pathogen may persist in infected tissues up to 400 days (48, 3187) and is commonly saprophytic on forest debris which provides a source of abundant spores during periods of rain (41: 339).
Literature: Birch, Bull. N.Z. Forest Serv. 8, 1-19, 1936; Waterman, Phytopathology 33: 1018-1031, 1943; Ferreirinha, Estudos Inf. Dir. ger. Serus Flor. aquie. 46: 43 pp., 1955 (mimeographed 28 refs); Capretti, Annali Accad. ital. Sci. for. 5: 171-202, 1956 (77 refs) (taxonomy, disease); Curtis, Trans. R. Soc. N.Z. 56: 52-57, 1926; Haddow & Newman, Trans. R. Can. Inst. 2A: 1-17, 1942; Slagg & Wright, Phytopathology 33: 390-393, 1943; Purnell, Bull. Forests Commn Victoria 5: 10 pp., 1957; Eldridge, Tech. Pap. For. Commn Victoria 7: 1-22, 1961 (disease).
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