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Page number:146 
Remarks (internal):As pointed out earlier (MAAS GEESTERANUS, 1966a: 31) Hydnum ikenoi is almost certainly a synonym of C. septentrionalis. In view of the features mentioned in the original diagnosis, the identity is plausible. In any case the occurrence of the species in Japan is an established fact.
LLOYD (1920:1012), listing Hemmi's collection as Hydnum septentrionale, failed to recognize that one of the two specimens represents Climacodon pulcherrimus, which see.
The Japanese material of the present species is an illustrative example of the relative value of terms like subhymenial cystidia, tramal cystidia, gloeocystidia, to say nothing of an even narrower subdivision. Fig. 219 shows some characteristic subhymenial cystidia such as usually found in that part of the spine between its base and the middle. These cystidia are short-stalked and thick-walled with encrusted tips. Those farther towards the tip of the spine have increasingly longer stalks, are thinnerwalled, and usually lack a crystalline cap (Fig. 220), but possess the same highly colourable contents as the generative hyphae, which for want of a better term are here called oleaginous. Those cystidia with very long stalks may conveniently be called gloeocystidia; surely they originate somewhere deep in the context of the spine. Occasionally, however, structures are found (Fig. 221) which appear intermediate between gloeocystidia, subhymenial cystidia, and generative hyphae. They differ from equally thickwalled generative hyphae in being somewhat wider, curving outward, and having their first septum much farther back from the apex.
A great surprise is the find of C. 8eptentrionali8 in the tropics: Singapore and Luzon.
Although the material from Singapore is in such poor condition as to reduce microscopic examination to almost nil, it yields the indispensable information that the (extremely scarce) cystidia are fusiform, moderately thick-walled, and encrusted at the tips. Supplementary data are found in the notes that accompany the collection: "Pileus rather brittle, white when fresh. Spores minute 3.5 x 7 µm [ I found a few which were about 4.5 x 3 µm but these may have been immature], ovoid, hyaline. A big tuft in superimposed brackets on dead wood." These data combined suffice for the identification of the specimen.
The material from Luzon, consisting of several atrociously maltreated pilei, is recognizable by its numerous cystidia (fusiform, thin- and moderately thick-walled, with and without encrusted tips) and the characteristic hyphal tufts on the upper surface of the pileus. Spores were not seen.
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:CLIMACODON SEPTENTRIONALIS (Fr.) P. Karst.-Figs. 218-221
Of the three collections available the Japanese gathering, consisting of a single specimen, was selected for the following description. Material consisting of a part-pileus with some of its basal portion still attached, but torn from the main body of the basidiome. Pileus about 30 mm radius, dimidiate or probably narrowed behind, horizontal, plane, with an obscure concentrical zone near the margin, pitted-strigose to reticulately hirsute, the junctions of the reticulum formed by strongly prominent, tubercle-like bunches of agglutinated hairs, ochraceous yellow; margin strongly involute. Spines 4-5 mm long, decurrent, crowded, subulate, smooth, whitish, the tips brownish flesh colour and often whitish-fimbriate. Context up to about 10 mm thick towards the base of the pileus, stringy, tough and rigid, obscurely zoned, whitish, remaining unchanged in dilute KOH. Taste and smell, no information.
Context (difficult to examine as its elements withstand every attempt at disentanglement) apparently monomitic, consisting of generative hyphae and numerous connecting or "bridge" hyphae (TEixEIRA, 1961:38). Generative hyphae 3-7 µm wide, not inflating, branched, frequently anastomosing, septate, thin- to moderately thick-walled at the margin, and there without clamp-connections, thick-walled to solid and with clamps farther back, all containing some oleaginous matter which with increasing distance from the margin becomes progressively less apparent. Context of the spines similar, but with fewer hyphae as wide as those in the pileus. Basidia all immature, clavate, without clamp-connection. Spores not seen. Cystidia 36-45 x 9-12 u, comparatively scarce, lacking in the apical portion of the spine, in general originating subhymenially (but see remarks), fusiform and with pointed tip, moderately thick-walled and with a long stalk nearer the tip of the spine, very thick-walled and with a short stalk farther back, and usually with a conspicuously encrusted tip, the excreted matter remaining unaltered in alkaline solution. Tip of the spines made up entirely of generative hyphae, the oily contents of which do not stain in sulphoanisealdehyde.
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