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Remarks (public):For a complete description including images see www.cababstractsplus.org/dfb 
Remarks (internal):In phytopathological publications the conidial state of Mycosphaerella mori has been variously designated or misdetermined as species of Cercospora, Cercosporella, Cylindrosporium, Phloeospora, Septoria and Septogloeum and as a result information on pathology is documented under various names. Leaf spot caused by M. mori is one of the most damaging diseases of mulberry (5, 520; 52, 3777) and the infection intensity of the disease is favoured by crowded conditions in plantations (16, 786). The development and spread of the disease are reported to be influenced by a number of factors such as temperature, shade and humidity (14, 265; 29, 517). It has been reported in Italy that infected leaves have a toxic effect on silkworms (14, 265) and in the U.S.S.R. when conidial suspensions of the fungus were introduced into silkworms no evidence of injurious effect was noticed (Zaprometov & Mikhailov, 1937). The fungus grows and sporulates well on agar media; opt. temp. for in vitro growth has been reported to be 20-28°C (52, 3777). Incubation period has been reported to vary from 5-14 days. No completely resistant mulberry variety has been found (52, 3777) but it has been reported that hybrids between the local shrub-like mulberry (Khasak) and the Japanese varieties are immune to attack by M. mori. (16, 785). In Italy some degree of resistance to M. mori has been shown by mulberry varieties Filippina Florio and Rosa Lombarda (14, 265). Pruning shrubs has been recommended (14, 265) as one of the methods for retarding the disease (14, 265; 16, 785). It has been reported that effective control could be obtained by spraying trees once in spring and 3 times in summer with 0,5% zineb, 0,4% polycarbacin, 0,3% phygon, 0,3% melprex, 0,7% captan, or 0,5% Copper oxychloride (44, 1181; 47, 1630). A later report has claimed that ziram was highly toxic to spores but less so to mycelium, and thiram at 110 mg/1 completely inhibited mycelial growth. At low concentrations some fungicides stimulated germination and growth (48, 2488). Recently it has been reported that good control of the mulberry disease could be obtained with antibiotics, 0,02% trichothecin and 0,05% polymycin. Increased concentration increased effectiveness without any phytoxicity (52, 2992; 53, 4849).
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Mycosphaerella mori (Fuckel) Lindau, P. Sorauer's Handbuch der Pflanzenkranheiten 2: 239, 1908.
Mycosphaerella mori (Fuckel) Wolf, Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 51: 165, 1935.
Sphaerella mori Fuckel, Jahrbüch des Nassauischen Vereins fur Naturkunde 23-24: 106, 1870.
Anamorph: Phloeospora maculans (Bérenger) Allescher, in Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz 1: 935, 1900.
Cylindrosporium * maculans (Allescher) Jacz., fide Zaprometov, N.G. & Mikhailov, E.N., 1937.
Phloeosporella maculans (Bérenger) Hohnel, Mitteilungen aus dem Botanischen Institut der Technischen Hochschule, Wein 4: 77, 1927.
Cercosporella maculans (Bérenger) Wolf, Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 51: 165, 1935. Fusarium maculans Bérenger, Atti Congr. Milano: 474, 1944, fide Allescher, A. 1900. Septoria mori Lév., Annales des sciences naturelles sér. 3 5: 279, 1846.
Fusisporium mori Mont., Bull. Soc. Agric. ser. 2 8: 498, 1853, fide Allescher, A. 1900.
Phloeospora mori (Lév.) Sacc., Michelia 1: 175, 1878.
Septogloeum mori (Lév.) Briosi & Cavara, I funghi parassiti delle piante coltivate od utili esiccati delineati e descritti Fasc. I, 21, 1888.
Cylindrosporium mori (Lév.) Berl., Rivista di patologia vegetale 5: 205, 1896.
Cercospora pulvinulata Sacc. & Winter forma angulosa Savul. & Sandu, Herbarium Mycologicum Romanicum Fasc. IV, no. 188, 930.
*This name is often cited in phytopathological publications (16: 786; 37, 709; 48, 2488; 52, 2992; 52, 3777; 53, 4849) but the original place of publication is untraceable.
Pseudothecia on overwintered, fallen leaves, initially immersed, later erumpent, epiphyllous, dark brown, spherical, 70-80 x 60-70 µm, with short necks and circular ostioles. Pseudothecial wall pseudoparenchymatic, composed of several cell layers(texture angularis), the outer (1-2 cells) dark brown, the inner (2-4 cells) hyaline. Asci fasciculate, cylindrical to clavate, hyaline, 8-spored, 35-45 x 5-6 µm; ascus wall bitunicate. Ascospores biseriate or irregularly biseriate, ellipsoid, medianly orslightly unequally 1-septate, upper cell slightly wider than the lower cell, 10-13 x 2,5-3 (-3,5) µm, guttulate. Conidiomata within lesions, epiphyllous, acervular, subepidermal, separate or confluent, 110-200 (-300) µm wide, composed of pseudoparenchymatic cells (texture angularis); dehiscence irregular. Conidiogenous cells cylindrical, hyaline, holoblastic, sometimes with inconspicuous annellations, occasionally also sympodial, 8-20 x 2-4 µm. Conidia hyaline, straight or curved,(25-) 33-40 (-64) x 2,5-3 (-4) µm, 2-5-septate, guttulate.
Hosts: Morus alba (white mulberry), M. nigra. (black mulberry).
Disease: Leaf spot or 'Cylindrosporiosis' of mulberry. The visible symptoms are light brown to dark brown circular or irregular lesions with paler or whitish centres. Individual lesions measure 3-6 cm wide but they often coalesce to form blotches. Severe disease leads to loss of foliage.
Geographical distribution: Africa (Kenya, Libya, Zimbabwe, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda), Asia (India, Iraq, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Turkey, U.S.S.R. Armenia, Georgia, Tashkent); Australasia (Australia, New South Wales, Western Australia), Europe (Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, U.K., Hungary, Malta, Yugoslavia), North America (U.S.A., Pennsylvania to Florida, Texas to West Virginia, Wisconsin); South America (Brazil, Manaus).
Physiological specialization: None reported. A wide range of reactions among shrub-like mulberry and hybrids have been recorded in the U.S.S.R. (16, 786).
Transmission: By conidia dispersed by rain splash. The fungus overwinters in young parts of branches (14, 265) and in debris Iying on the ground.
Literature: Allescher, A., in Rabenhorst's Kryptogammen-Flora von Deutschland, Oesterrich und der Schweiz 1: 935, 1900 (taxonomy); Wolf, F.A., J. Elisha Mitchell Scient. Soc. 51: 163-166, 1935 (life-history); Zaprometov, N.G. & Mikhailov, E.N., Transactions of the Central-Asian Scientific Research Institute of Sericulture Tashkent 14, 50 pp., 1937.

 
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