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Remarks (public):For a complete description including images see www.cababstractsplus.org/dfb 
Remarks (internal):Conidia have an active discharge mechanism (Webster, 1952). On banana (Musa)(6, p. 758, 12, p. 745, 13, p. 42- 44 and 643, 16, p. 763, 21, p. 31, 26, p. 74, 28, p. 512, 33, p. 211, 37, p. 204, 41, p. 97, 42, p. 476, 45, 3176, 49, 803, 50, 815, 53, 628, 2264 and 4852, 55, 4209 and 5290, 61, 3556 and 7096); on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)(7, p. 212); on maize (Zea mays)(8, p. 293, 10, pp. 180, 297, 376 and 644, 12, p. 201, 21, pp. 122 and 368, 25, pp. 161 and 332, 27, p. 417, 29, p. 505); associated with elm wilt (Ulmus)(12, 125); on Andropogon halepensis, Chloris gayana, Imperata cylindrica, Panicum didactylum, Paspalum dilatatum, Pennisetum clandestinum, Rhynchelytrum roseum and Sorghum (13, p. 42); on rice (Oryza saliva)(15, p. 632); on Areca catechu (19, p. 73); on oak (Quercus)(21, p. 272); on wheat (Triticum)(23, p. 222); on cotton (Gossypium)(27, p. 350); associated with damping-off in red pine (Pinus resinosa)(31, p. 412); on Sorghum (33, p. 599); on seeds of Helichrysum (35, p. 474); on apple (Malus)(37, p. 241); growth factor requirements (41, p. 580); on Saccharum officinarum (42, p. 146); on Ananas comosus (43, 3277); on Areca seedlings (44, 2695); on beet (Beta) seed (46, 786); on maize (Zea mays)(47, 2358); control by thiabendazole (50, 816); production of aphidicolin (antiviral diterpenoid) (53, 2441); production of cellulase (53, 4326); on Hydrangea (60, 773); fruit rot of Embilia officinalis (61, 5866); leaf spot on Cymbopogon (62, 341); leaf spot on Citrus (63, 5438); inflorescence rot of cauliflower (Brassica)(63, 952); associated with bark necrosis of apples (Malus)(64, 2621); on Sorghum (66, 191).
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Nigrospora sphaerica (Sacc.) Mason, Transactions of the British Mycological Society 12: 158, 1927.
Trichosporium sphaericum Sacc., 1882.
Hadrotrichum arundinaceum Cooke & Massee, 1887.
Epicoccum levisporum Pat., 1893.
Epicoccum hyalopes Miyake, 1910.
Coniosporium gecevi Bubak, 1912.
Coniosporium extremorum Syd. & P. Syd., 1913.
Colonies hairy, hyaline, becoming tinged dark brown or blackish brown where conidia are produced. Mycelium immersed and superficial. Conidiophores micronematous or semi-macronematous, mononematous, straight or flexuous, branched, subhyaline to pale brown or brown, smooth. Conidiogenous cells discrete, determinate, ampulliform or subspherical, hyaline. Conidia acrogenous, formed singly, oblate sphaeroidal, non-septate, dark brown to blackish brown, smooth, (14-)16-18(-20) µm diam.
Hosts: Abelmoschus, Acacia, Acropera, Album, Ananas, Anthurium, Amaranthus, Andropogon, Arachis, Aralia, Araucaria, Areca, Argemone, Artocarpus, Arundinaria, Asparagus, Axonopus, Bambusa, Banhinia, Bridelia, Brassica, Cajanus, Calamus, Calotropis, Camellia, Capsicum, Cardamomum, Carex, Carica, Coriandrum, Cenchrus, Centrosema, Chasmopodium, Chloris, Cicer, Cinnamomum, Citrullus, Citrus, Cocos, Coffea, Coix, Cola, Colea, Coriandrum, Crotalaria, Cucumis, Culcasia, Cupressus, Cymbopogon, Cyperus, Dianthus, Dichanthium, Dioscorea, Elaeis, Emblica, Erianthus, Eriobotrya, Eucalyptus, Euphorbia, Feronia, Ficus, Fragaria, Gladiolus, Glycine, Gomphrena, Gossypium, Hevea, Hibiscus, Hordeum, Hydrangea, Hymantrudae, Hyparrhenia, Ipomoea, Jatropha, Lactuca, Luffa, Lycopersicon, Macadamia, Mormodica, Morus, Lathyrus, Malus, Mangifera, Musa, Nicotiana, Neomarica, Nephelium, Nothofagus, Oncidium, Ophiuros, Oryza, Oxytenanthera, Panicum, Papaver, Pelargonium, Pennisetum, Pueraria, Phalaenopsis, Phaseolus, Phragmites, Physalis, Pinus, Piper, Pistia, Populus, Prunus, Pseudotsuga, Psidium, Psophocarpus, Pyrethrum, Raphanus, Ricinus, Robinia, Rosa, Rottboellia, Saccharum, Salvia, Shorea, Solanum, Sorghum, Sporobolus, Sphenoclea, Stevia, Stigmaphyllon, Strychnos, Tabebuia, Tabemaemontana, Theobroma, Trichosanthes, Trigonella, Triticum, Vicia, Vitex, Xanthosoma, Zea, Zizyphus; also from air, animals (including man and Ceroplastus), soil and plant debris, and stored foods.
Disease: None as a primary pathogen of plants; frequently encountered as a secondary invader or as a saprophyte. Associated with 'squirter' and 'black end' disease of banana.
Geographical distribution: Africa: Cameroon, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Spain (Canary Islands), Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Asia: Bangladesh, Brunei, Burma, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Nepal, Pakistan, Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah), Philippines, Sarawak, Sri Lanka, Syria. Australasia & Oceania: Australia, Fiji, Guadalcanal, New Zealand, Norfolk Islands, Papua New Guinea, Tonga. Europe: Italy, Turkey, UK. North America: Canada, USA. Central America & West Indies: Cuba, Honduras, Jamaica, Trinidad, Windward Islands. South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Venezuela.
Physiological specialization: None reported.
Transmission: By unknown means.
Literature: Ellis, Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes (Kew): 319-320, 1971; Mason, Transactions of the British Mycological Society 12: 152-165, 1927; Webster, New Phytologist 51: 229-235, 1952.

 
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