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Remarks (public):For a complete description including images see www.cababstractsplus.org/dfb 
Remarks (internal):The species is characterised by compact colonies, with brilliant orange mycelium and reverse. The species is a marginal xerophile, being isolated from cereals held just above safe moisture content levels (Pitt & Hocking, 1985). It has been isolated from wheat (69, 5650), rice (RMVM 25, 3511), maize (69 2202) and flour (RMVM 23, 756). Additionally, it has been isolated from spices (Frisvad, 1988), and stomach contents of an aborted bovine foetus (IMI, 1988).
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Penicillium islandicum Sopp., Skrifter udgivet af Videskabsselskabet i Christiania 11: 161, 1912.
Colonies on Czapek and malt extract agars growing restrictedly, 15-20 mm in 7 days, velutinous to lightly floccose, mycelium intensely coloured, deep orange, sporulation moderate and usually enveloped by mycelium, but coloured glaucus blue, exudate and soluble pigment usually absent, reverse deep orange. Conidial heads biverticillate, usually arising from trailing ropes of hyphae. Conidiophores smooth, 30-60 x 2,7-3,2 µm. Metulae closely appressed, in verticils of 4-7, 8-10 x 2,5-3 µm. Phialides acerose, 5-8 per metula, 7-8 x 2-2,5 µm. Conidia heavy walled, elliptical, smooth (micro-tuberculate in SEM), 3-3,5 µm diam.
Hosts: Common in cereals (Pitt, 1980).
Diseases: On man: It is the causal agent of 'yellow rice' disease, responsible for acute and chronic liver lesions cirrhosis and primary carcinomas, particularly in Japan (Beuchat, 1987). In animals: It is considered to be a weak pathogen (Pitt, 1980; IMI, 1988).
Toxin production: Known metabolises include: islandicin, emodin, endocrocin, skyrine, flavoskyrine, rubroskyrine, chrysophanol, roseoskyrine, iridiskyrine, simatoxin, (Domsch et al., 1980; Frisvad, 1988), and five hepatotoxins are produced: luteoskyrine, cyclochlorotine, islanditoxin, erythroskyrine and rugulosin (Frisvad, 1988). The most toxic are luteoskyrin and cyclochlorotine, the latter causing liver cirrhosis and fibrosis. Luteoskyrin and rugulosin produce liver necrosis (RMVM 20, 1306), affect DNA polymerase (RMVM 21, 2958), inhibit energy transfer and uncouple oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria (RMVM 19, 1715), and erythroskyrine causes paralysis and hepatic damage with nephrotic changes and injury to the Iymphatic system (Beuchat, 1987). Cereal grain contaminated with P. islandicum was toxic to young ducklings (Domsch et al., 1980).
Geographical distribution: World-wide, although it appears to be more widespread in tropical than temperate regions.
Literature: Beuchat, Food and beverage mycology: 556-557, 1987; Domsch et al., A Compendium of Soil Fungi: 578, 1980; Frisvad, Introduction to food-borne fungi: 239-249, 1988; IMI: Catalogue of the culture collection of the International Mycological Institute, 1988; Pitt, The Genus Penicillium and its teleomorphic states Eupenicillium and Talaromyces: 447, 1980; Pitt & Hocking, Fungi and Food Spoilage: 245, 1985; RMVM: refers to abstracts in the Review of Medical and Veterinary Mycology.

 
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