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Page number:894 
Remarks (internal):Systematic position. The systematic placement of this species is problematic for several reasons. Most authors place R. puiggarii in subsect. Discopodinae Heim of sect. Pelliculariae Heim, an invalid name that is best forgotten. Discopodinae was never described at a hierarchical rank, but from the context, it was clear that Heim (1938) considered it a subsection. It was based on Russula annulata sensu Heim, a species for which the various forms and varieties recognized by Heim represent different subsections (Buyck 1994). In addition, the much later described R. discopusHeim (1970) belongs to a different section and probably even subgenus than R. annulata.
Predominantly clavate dermatocystidia are not frequent in tropical Russulas and the only known tropical subsections with such pileocystidia and a similar habit are Inflatinae Buyck and Pseudoepitheliosinae Buyck. Both of these subsections have vividly colored, pink, red to purple or blue species. One entirely brown African species, R. declinata Buyck, is obviously very closely related to R. puiggarii. Notwithstanding the brown color, it was placed in Inflatinae for lack of any better solution (for illustrations and detailed descriptions, see Buyck 1994).
Commentary. The above description is entirely based on the Panama collections. Russula puiggarii is well characterized by the relatively narrow extremities in the suprapellis and the presence of 2 types of pileocystidia, the first broadly clavate and the second narrowly subulate to narrowly clavate and descending into the deepest layer of the subpellis. It is further characterized by the narrow hymenial cystidia. Russula brasiliensis is certainly a later synonym and corresponds in every way to the type of R. puiggarii. Pegler (1983) retains his R. hygrophytica as an autonomous species, but his argument for doing so is very weak and based on minimal mycoogical and macroscopical differences (200 m elevational difference). Re-examination of the type did not reveal micromorphological differences and we think it is best considered a synonym. The spore dimensions in the description are from Ovrebo 3809. We give for comparison also the measurements of basidiospores for the types of R. brasiliensis: ((7.6-)7.8-8.12-8.5(-8.7) x (7.0-)7.3-7.6-7.9(-8.0) µm, Q = 1.02-1.07-1.15, n = 20) and R. hygrophytica: ((6.9-)7.1-7.44-7.8(-8.1) x (6.5-)6.8-6.97-7.2-7.3 µm, Q = 1.01-1.07-1.13, n = 20).
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Russula puiggarii (Spegazzini) Singer, Lilloa 23: 239. (1950, published 1952). Figs. 3, 24-31
Clitocybe puiggarii Spegazzini, Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Cordoba 9: 389, 1889.
=R. brasiliensis Singer, Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts & Lett. 32: 108, 1948. Fig. 32
= R. hygrophytica Pegler, Mycotaxon 12: 92, 1980. Fig. 33
Basidiomata solitary. Pileus 40-50 mm wide, concave or plane and depressed at the center, glabrous, tuberculate-striate from mid-radius to the pileus margin, pellis separable at margin, dark gray to olive brownish gray over the central area and ridges (10 YR 3/3), grooves of sulcations off-white. Lamellae 3-4 mm wide, adnate, off-white, entire, rugulose-pitted in between lamellae; lamellulae absent. Stipe 40-60 mm long, 7 mm thick, equal, faintly longitudinally ridged (10x lens), off-white to very light gray; pithy and somewhat chambered inside. Context of pileus 1.5-2 mm thick, off-white, odor and taste nondescript. Basidiomes not reacting with 2.5% KOH. Spore print not observed.
Basidiospores subglobose, (7.4-)7.7-8.10-8.5(-8.9) x (6.9-)7.1-7.37-7.6(-7.9) µm, Q = 1.05-1.10-1.20, n = 20, ornamentation reticulate in young spores and entirely consisting of low crests with short lateral diverticulations, soon locally developing into large conical spines, up to 2(-2.5) µm high, strongly but often partly amyloid, remaining interconnected by fine lines, forming an incomplete reticulum, rarely twined or fused in short wings; suprahilar plage large, sometimes inamyloid or weakly amyloid and verrucose but more frequently strongly amyloid and thickened in the distal part, surrounded by smaller warts. Basidia (35-)40-50(-55) x 11-12(-13) µm, the smallest ones near the lamella edge, clavate, 4-spored; sterigmata 4-6 x 1-1.5 µm. Cystidia dispersed (400-500/mm2), emergent for 20-30 µm, cylindrical to narrowly subclavate or subfusiform, 60-84 x 7-10 µm, much smaller (31 x 5 µm) near the lamella edge, thin-walled, faintly reddish brown, then graying in SV, with refringent to crystalline contents at least in their upper part. Marginal cells poorly developed, basidiolomorphous or apically attenuated or appendiculate, thin-walled, optically empty, mixed with cheilocystidia and small basidia. Subhymenium composed of small, nearly isodiametrical to globose cells. Lamellar trama with large sphaerocytes and hyphae, with oleiferous fragments and endocystidia near the pileus trama, but not terminating in pseudocystidia, many hyphae distinctly zebroid encrusted. Pileipellis distinctly two-layered, orthochromatic in cresyl blue, a gelatinized subpellis of (2-)3-5 µm large, thin-walled, frequently septate hyphae, with scattered strongly refringent terminal fragments, these often minutely mucronate and about 2 µm diam; suprapellis composed of dispersed, densely septate extremities, containing locally transverse bands of necropigment, composed of slightly larger cells, the terminal cell of the same diam or hardly tapering; pileocystidia of two types: the first broadly clavate, 26-50(-65) x 9-11(-14) µm diam, often appendiculate, the other narrowly subulate, 32-54 x 3-4 µm, minutely capitate, towards the pileus margin descending into the subpellis; both types relatively numerous, terminal, thin-walled, with granular-refringent to slightly crystalline contents. Pileocystidia also observed, but sometimes with much effort and patience, near the subpellis-underlying trama transition, up to 100 µm long, narrowly clavate, capitate to obtuse. Stipitipellis similar to pileipellis in structure. In the upper part the hyphal extremities aggregated in ramified tufts, short-celled, with more inflated, often subglobose to globose or clavate cells, and numerous terminal caulocystidia of the clavate appendiculate type with distinct refringent contents, in deeper layers without caulocystidia, but with distinct, often very large oleiferous hyphae; towards the stipe base with narrower extremities and mostly obtuse, clavate caulocystidia near the surface and longer, cylindrical ones embedded in deeper layers.
Specimens examined. BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul, on sandy soil, Rick (FH, holotype of R. brasiliensis), Sao Paulo, Apiai, April 1888, Puiggari (LPS, HOLOTYPE of R. puiggarii). FRENCH ANTILLES: Martinique, Perdrix Plateau, Aug 1976, Fiard 506/F (K, HOLOTYPE of R. hygrophytica).
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