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 Add this item to the list   Entoloma vernum Lundell (tav. 33, fig. 119)
   
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Page number:265 
Remarks (internal):Like in Entoloma sericeum and E. ameides, to which E. vernum is related, tricholomatoid and mycenoid forms occur. The synonym Rhodophyllus cucullatus Favre represents such a slender, mycenoid form from alpine regions. I do not attach taxonomic value to these forms. Entoloma vernum is typically a species from poorer types of coniferous forest on acidulous, often sandy soils. It can be found in large groups, but it is reported to be poisonous. Rarely it is encountered in open, deciduous forest, e.g. in Fraxinus forest, together with other vernal fungi such as Ptychoverpa bohemica. There are very few reports of E. vernum on calcareous soil. Entoloma hirtipes, another vernal species, occurs in richter types of coniferous forest on basic soils, and cannot be mistaken for E. vernum for that reason alone, but additional differences are the strong mealy smell, heterodiametrical spores and sterile lamella edge.
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Entoloma vernum Lundell (tav. 33, fig. 119)
Entoloma vernum Lundell in Svensk bot. Tidskr. 31: 193. 1937; Rhodophyllus vernus (Lundell) Romagn. in Bull. trimest. Soc. mycol. Fr. 63: 195. 1947; Nolanea verna (Lundell) Kotlaba & Pouzar in Ceska Mycol. 26: 221. 1972.
Sin.: Rhodophyllus cucullatus Favre, Champ. sup. Zone alpine: 62. 1955; Nolanea cucullata (Favre) P. D. Orton in Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 43: 179. 1960.
Interpr. err.: Nolanea pascua sensu Bres., Iconogr. mycol. 12, pl. 580. 1929.
Icon.: Auguadri & al., Funghi e boschi del Cantone Ticino 3: pl. 146. 1986; Ayer in Schweiz. Z. Pilzk. 52, pl. 1. 1974; Bresadola, G., Iconogr. mycol. 12, pl. 580. 1929; Cetto, Funghi Vero 2, pl. 532. 1976; Herink, J. in Ceska Mykol. 10(1), pl. 21. 1956: Lundell in Svensk bot. Tidskr. 31, fig. 3. 1937; Mazzer in Mich. bot. 16, fig. 1-6. 1977: Ryman & Holm˴sen, Swampar: 377. 1984.
Escl. icon.: Dähncke & Dähncke, 700 Pilze: 250. 1979 (= ? E. testaceum).
Bibl.: Mazzer in Mich. Bot. 16: 195-200. 1977; Noordeloos in Persoonia 10: 476-478, fig. 21. 1980; Noordeloos in Bas & al., Fl. agar. neerl., vol. 1: 129, fig. 108. 1987.
Holotypus: S. Lundell, 19 May 1933, Arentuna, Uppland, Svezia (Fungi Exsiccati Suecici no. 402, UPS).
Pileus 10-60 mm broad, acutely conical, conical or conico-convex, only slightly expanding with age to conico-convex or convex with distinct papilla, with involute margin at first, hygrophanous, when moist slightly translucently striate at margin, in thin-fleshed specimens up to half the radius, very dark blackish brown, grey-brown or sepia, not or only slightly paler towards margin, pallescent on drying along radialy streaks to grey-brown or sepia, thin-fleshed specimens may fade to ochraceous-brown, smooth, glabrous, shining. Lamellae, L = 20-40, l = 1-5, moderately crowded, adnate, emarginate or almost free, ventricose, grey­brown then dark brown-pink with concolorous, entire or eroded edge. Stipe 30-90(-110) x 2­-12 mm, cylindrical or broadened towards base, sometimes compressed with longitudinal groove, concolorous with pileus or slightly paler, pruinose at apex, usually glabrous below, but frequently also entirely pruinose, but then often glabrescent with age, innately fibrillose­striate lengthwise, white tomentose at base. Context concolorous with surface in cortex, pallid in inner parts. Smell weak. Taste mild.
Spores (8-)9-11.5(-12) x 7-9(-9.5) µm, Q= 1.1-1.4, heterodiametrical, 5-7-angled in side­view. Basidia 4-spored, clamped. Lamella edge fertile. Cystidia absent. Pileipellis a thin cutis of narrow, cylindrical hyphae, 4-11 µm wide. Pigment brown, encrusting the hyphae of pileipellis, rarely in addition an intracellular pigment is found in deeper layers of pileipellis. Caulocystidia usually present, at least in upper part of stipe, cylindrical with (sub-)capitate apex, 5-12 µm wide. Clamps present in hymenium, elsewhere rare.
Habitat: in and near coniferous forests, but also found in heath-like vegetations with Juniperus and Calluna, usually on places with sufficient light, on open spots, at margin of forest etc., preferably on poorer, acid sandy of licht soil-types; rarely found in deciduous forest; also frequently encountered in (sub-)alpine and arctic grassy vegetations; spring (April-June), but in alpine and arctic habitats in summer.
Distribution: Wide-spread and locally common, all over Europe and in North America.

 
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