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Description type:Original description 
Description:Ramaria flavicingula R. Petersen, sp. nov. - Figs. 3, 4
Typus: Helvetia, Einsedeln, 28.IX.72 (TENN no. 36832).
Fruitbodies (Fig. 3) up to 14 x 8 cm, sphaeropedunculate, circular, to depressed-obovate in outline. Stipe up to 6 x 4 cm, single, bluntly cylindrical to broadly rounded, smooth, occasionally with 1-2 abortive branchlets, white or whitish below substrate level, yellow to golden yellow above (S. 226, 228, 242), not brunnescent to weakly watery brunnescent where handled; flesh white, solid, moist but not gelatinous or slippery when cut, not mottled or marbled, not discoloring. Major branches several, short, terete outward, concolorous with stipe apex downward, upward concolorous with branches. Branches in 3-6 ranks, generally short, more or less terete, elongating only in age, varying from orange (S. 211) to pallid salmon-flesh (S. 199); flesh often somewhat more salmon than hymenium; internodes all short until maturity, diminishing gradually upward; axils narrowly rounded to acute when young, rounded at maturity. Apices bluntly digitate to molar-like when young, digitate at maturity, varying in color from intense orange (S. 196, but brighter and more vivid, near `cadmium orange' or `orange') to rich golden yellow (S. 227, 258). Odor mildly aromatic, of nitro-benzol; taste weakly sweet to negligible.
Macrochemical reactions: FSW, FSA, FCL, GUA, PYR = positive; ANO = negative to slowly weakly positive; KOH = negative.
Stipe tramal hyphae 3-14 µm diam., hyaline, thin- (rarely) to thick-walled (wall normally up to 1.2 µm thick), often appearing irregularly banded or mottled, occasionally clamped, not adherent or agglutinated, tightly interwoven; ampulliform septa up to 15 µm broad, asymmetrical, thick-walled (wall up to 1.5 µm thick), with gross stalactitiform ornamentation; gloeoplerous hyphae not observed. Tramal hyphae of upper branches 3-12 µm diam., hyaline, thin- to thick-walled (wall locally up to 0.5 µm thick, especially at septa), parallel, tightly packed, occasionally clamped; ampulliform swellings up to 14 µm broad, aliiform, thick-walled (wall up to 1 µm thick), unornamented; gloeoplerous hyphae not observed. Subhymenium rudimentary; hyphae 1.5-2.5 µm diam., clamped, tightly interwoven. Hymenium thickening; basidia 50-65 x 8-9 µm, clavate, clamped; contents weakly cyanophilous, opalescent; steriµmata 4, delicate, curved.
Spores (Fig. 4) 10.1-11.2 x 4.3-5.0 µm (E = 2.07-2.50; Em = 2.30; Lm = 10.61 µm), ellipsoid to subcylindrical, conspicuously roughened in profile; contents with 1-3 yellowrefringent guttules; wall up to 0.2 µm thick; hilar appendix curved, not prominent; ornamentation of scattered small warts and/or short anastomosing ridges apparently without orientation.
This taxon may be what Schild (19826) called R. sandaracina (ut `sandracina') Marr & Stuntz (1973: 114). For the American taxon (presumably var. sandaracina) Schild summarized fruitbody colors as `... unten scheinbar bleibend gelb, zitrongelb, aufwdrts bis zu den Spitzen intensiv orange.'
Schild reported colors for two of his collections. Swiss fruitbodies were as follows: `... die Aeste jungerer Pilze sehr blass orangegelb mit einem Hauch lachsrosa oder blass lachsfarbig, mit zunehmenden Wachstum oft noch intensiver (ahnlich Seguy 199, aber leuchtender) die Spitzen waren anfanglich meist gelblich, wurden aber bald den Aesten gleichfarbig.' The Italian fruitbodies were as follows: `... die Aeste zuerst bis obenaus gleichfarbig primelgelb, dann mehr aprikosengelb (nahe S. 229) wurden aber mit zunehmenden Wachstum (oder auch nach langerer Lagerung) bis obenaus blass orangerosa-lachsfarbig.'
In my copy of Schild's publication (reprint, misit Schild), Schild has changed his opinion on this taxon, apparently wishing to describe it as new. He has furnished the provisional name Ramaria flavosalmonicolor, but the comparison above still holds.
Marr & Stuntz (1973) drew attention to var. sandaracina versus var. euosma, with differed (in part) by the yellow apices of the latter versus the orange apices of the former. Both varieties, however, were marked by the yellow upper stipe/lowest branches against the salmon or salmon orange middle and upper branches. This yellow color band, acknowledged by Schild for American material, was not reported for his European collections. In this, Schild's description does not match the American taxa nor my European collections described above.
Spores dimensions reported by Schild [(6-)6.4-9.6 x 3.2-4.5(-4.8) µm] match well those reported by Marr & Stuntz (for var. sandaracina, 6.5-9 x 3.5-4.5, Lm = 8.1 µm; for var. euosma, 7-10 x 3.5-4 µm, Lm = 8.6 µm), but all these reported spores are too small for the taxon described above.
Ramaria sandaracina was diagnosed (Marr & Stuntz, 1973), in part, by a tendency of fruitbody stipe flesh to gelatinize. This was not as noticeable in var. sandaracina as in var. euosma. Schild mentioned such a character when he wrote of his European material: `Fleisch ... im Strunk deutlich wasserig marmoriert ...' Stipe flesh in R. flavicingula does not gelatinize.
From all of this, I conclude (without examination of Schild's collections) that Schild's specimens are quite similar to R. sandaracina (especially var. euosma, with yellow apices), but lack the yellow color band on the lower branches and/or upper stipe. The collections listed below do not match the descriptions by Schild (yellow color band, spores too large) nor that by Marr & Stuntz (spores too large, non-gelatinizing stipe flesh).
Superficially very similar to R. flavicingula is R. aurea, for which the collections below were originally taken. Fruitbody stature and colors, and spore dimensions are quite close [for representative specimen (Petersen, 1974): 11-13 x 4.8-5.9 µm, Lm = 11.2 µm]. The two are immediately separable, however, for R. aurea septa are clampless.
The species epithet combines flava (yellow) + cingula (girdle or belt).
SPECIMENS EXAMINED. - ITALY: vic. Trento, 20.IX.1972, coll. Gruppo G. Bresadola (TENN no. 36889). - SWITZERLAND: Grosser Runs, vic. Einsedeln, 28.IX.1972, misit Furrer-Ziogas, with notes and diapositive (holotype, TENN no. 36832); vic. Einsedeln, 30.IX.1972 (TENN no. 36890).
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