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 Add this item to the list   Pycnoporellus fulgens
Page number:8 
Remarks (internal):The bright colour, fibrillose upper surface and dentate pore mouths are generally sufficient to identify the species in the field. Pycnoporus cinnabarinus resembles it in size and colour, but differs in being corky in consistency, and in the even pellicle of the upper surface, and the regular pores.
The great variation in the microscopical characters may sometimes cause confusion. Constant characters are the monomitic structure, the lack of clamps and the presence of long cystidioles. The hyphal wall thickness varies between two extremes: the walls are thin in young specimens, but become almost solid in old fruit bodies. The staining in KOH accords with these changes, and in young specimens the hyphae of the hymenial trama often remain almost unstained. The hyphae of the context always stain - from faint pink to deep orange red. This is one of the best
characters differentiating badly preserved specimens from the other monomitic, clampless species of the genera Inonotus, Inonotopsis and Phaeolus. The red staining of Pycnoporellus fulgens was quite distinct even in the oldest herbarium specimens studied, including the type.
The changes in the spore size are remarkable, though they have not received much attention in the literature. Overholts (1953) noted this variability and considered that it depended upon the age of the sporophores. This is partly true, but one may often find spores of all sizes within the given limits in a single collection. It may be that unripe spores are liberated exceptionally easily in microscopic mounts, thus causing variation in the measurements. Spore prints gathered in nature were not studied. Or then the variation may be real; evidence that this may be so is the fact that besides the typical four-spored basidia, basidia with two (or even one or three) spores are also common.
The thin-walled, projecting cystidioles are met with regularly, although in some specimens they are scarce. They can be seen most easily near the bottoms of the tubes. Of much less regular occurrence are the other sterile elements, the pointed, thick-walled hyphal tips, staining red in KOH, which penetrate through the hymenium. The cystidioles were called the 'pseudosetae' by Kotlaba and Pouzar (1963). Personally I do not favour the use of this term, because it is too suggestive of the Hymenochaetaceae and their setae.
Ryvarden (1978) noted that the encrusted matter deposited on the hyphae takes a red stain in KOH. This is true, but the hyphae themselves also very clearly stain red. All things considered, KOH is the best medium for studying the microscopical characters of the species. Mounts in Cotton Blue, lactophenol or Melzer's reagent are much messier, and the characters remain unclear in these solutions, especially those of the hymenium.
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Pycnoporellus fulgens
Hydnum fulgens Fries, À–fvers. Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akad. Förhandl. 9: 130. 1852. Holotype: Hydnum fulgens Fr. (Sweden, À–stergötland,) Omberg, 1851 C.A. Holmgren (handwriting of E. Fries, UPS, selected as the 'neotype' by Ryvarden in herb. 1974; isotype S). - Pycnoporellus fulgens (Fr.) Donk, Persoonia 6: 216. 1971.
Polyporus fibrillosus Karsten, Sydvestra Finlands polyporeer: 30. 1859. Lectotype: Trametes fibrillosa, (Finland, Etelä-Pohjanmaa,) Sideby, ad trunc. Populi, junio 1859 P.A. Karsten 1896 (H, selected as the 'type' by Lowe 1956). - Pycnoporellus fibrillosus (Karst.) Murrill, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 32: 489. 1905.
Polyporus aurantiacus Peck, N.Y. State Mus. Ann. Rep. 26: 69. 1874. Holotype: Polyporus aurantiacus Pk., (U.S.A., New York,) Schoharie Co., Richmondville, C.H. Peck (NYS).
Ochroporus lithuanicus B?onski, Hedwigia 28: 280-281. 1889. Lectotype: Polyporus lithuanicus B?onski, Polonia, Lithuania, Bia?owieza, ad Quercum, julio 1887 Fr. B?onski, Herb. Karsten 2226 (H, selected here).
See discussions in the section Type studies. For further combinations see Donk (1974).
Not Polyporus shiraianus P. Henn., Bot. Jahrb. 28: 269. 1900. The type (from Japan, not seen) is a species of Fayolus (Polyporus), cf. Donk (1974: 363). The error regarding the synonymy is due to the report of Murrill (1907), who evidently studied not the type but another specimen so named (Lloyd 1922). This error has been widely accepted, e.g. by Pilát (1936-1942) and Bondarcev (1953).
Fruit body annual, mostly solitary but sometimes in imbricate groups of two to four. Consistency soft fibrous, spongy or sodden when fresh, rigid, friable and light-weight when dry, contracting only slightly when drying. Taste mild.
Mostly sessile, less often effused-reflexed, seldom resupinate. Pileus 2-10 cm wide, 4-10 mm thick and thickness in umbonate base up to 20 mm, projecting 15-30(-50) mm from substrate. Effused parts up to 10 x 6 cm but mostly smaller than adjacent pilei, 3-5 mm thick. Pileus at first nodular, soon shelf-shaped and semicircular, sometimes with a distinct umbo but mostly narrowly attached, effused parts easily peeled from substrate. Margin of fully grown fruit bodies thin, sharp and often slightly involute when drying (Figs. 9-10).
Upper surface orange-red, in very old collections darkened to orange-rust, concolorous but with slight structural zonation, first pubescent, in mature stage softly fibrillose, lowly hirsute around attachment. No cortex or pellicle.
Pore surface rough, of about the same hue as above, but lighter, pale orange to apricot, glancing. Pores first (1-)2-3 per mm, roundish or angular, mouths entire or lowly toothed; in later stage pores fusing together, sinuous or irregular, up to 1-2 mm diam. in longest dimension, dentate and finally lacerate (Fig. 11).
Context in section of the same colour as upper surface or somewhat lighter, homogeneous, concolorous or with faint zonation in thick base, 2-5 mm thick or up to 18 mm thick in umbonate base. Tubes in section saffron to apricot, or brick to blood red in old or badly preserved specimens, tubes 2-5 mm long.
Colours fading only a little in properly driedspecimens. All parts, especially upper surface and context, rapidly stained intense dark wine red or reddish black by KOH.
Spores (5.0-)5.9-10.0(-15.0) x (2.5-)2.9-4.0(-4.5) µm, single narrowly ellipsoid, longer spores with pointed ends and arcuate towards apiculus, smooth, very thin-walled, hyaline, nonamyloid, indextrinoid, acyanophilous, contents at the end of sporulation colouring faint pink in KOH. Apiculus distinct, ca. 0.8 x 0.8 µm. The size variation in the spores is exceptionally great, even within a single collection. (Fig. 12)
Basidia 20-30 x 4.5-5.5(-6.0) µm, narrowly clavate; sterigmata (3.5-)5-7 µm long, thinning evenly towards apex, mostly 4 per basidium, but fairly often 2 (rarely 1 or 3). Basidioles similar in shape, but seldom over 20 µm long. Cystidioles rare to scattered, (27-)35-50 x 3-5.5 µm, hyaline, thin-walled, with rounded tips, projecting 25-30 µm above hymenium, most common near the bottoms of the tubes, arising from Subhymenium. In old fruit bodies also a few thick-walled pointed cystidioles ('pseudosetae') 40-50 x 5-8 µm, arising from trama and staining light reddish in KOH. Hymenial elements form a fairly dense palisade.
Subhymenium 6-10 µm, not well delimited, formed by thin-walled, richly branched hyphae 2-4 µm, in diam., cells mostly 3-8 µm long.
Hyphal system monomitic. Generative hyphae simple-septate, of even thickness, flexuose, moderately branched, wall thickness very variable in different parts of fruit body and depending on age, wall thickening characteristically starting near the septa (Fig. 12). Hyphae yellow in Melzer's reagent, unstained in Cotton Blue, in KOH variable; old hyphae covered by granule- or needle-like (1-3 µm long) crystals, visible in, for instance, lactophenol but soluble in KOH. Tramal hyphae 2.5-5.5 µm in diam., subparallel, near tube mouths thin-walled and not staining in KOH, in upper trama walls 0.3-0.6 µm (young fruit bodies) to 1.5 µm (old specimens) thick and staining pale pink in KOH. Hyphae of context 3-9 µm in diam., loosely arranged, thicker hyphae, often forming strands, intermixed with freely oriented thinner branches, thin-walled (young) to subsolid (old) and staining bright orange-red in KOH. Hyphae in surface hairs up to 10 µm in diam., subsolid.
In Fennoscandia mostly on dead Picea abies, seldom Pinus sylyestris, Populus tremula and Betula sp., very often growing on wood first decayed by Fomitopsis pinicola. A rare south-eastern species. Prefers old, dense, moist spruce or spruce-mixed forests.
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