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 Add this item to the list  Antrodia sitchensis (Baxter) Gilb. & Ryv.
   
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Page number:82 
Remarks (internal):The characters of the Finnish specimen fit well with both the published descriptions (Baxter 1938, Lowe 1966, Gilbertson 1981, Gilbertson & Ryvarden 1986) and the Canadian specimens examined, except in a few minor details. The spores of the Canadian material agree with those of the Finnish specimen. The tightly interwoven structure of the tubes, with abundant skeletals, is evident in the Canadian specimens also, and similar cystidioles are frequently seen. The amyloid reaction of the skeletal hyphae, reported by Gilbertson (1981) and Gilbertson and Ryvarden (1986) is clear in Finnish material as well. The cystidioles seem to be shorter and less common in well-developed hymenium in good condition, but more pronounced and numerous in degenerating or otherwise loose hymenial areas. Lowe (1966) reported and illustrated 'cystidia' in the hymenium, but Gilbertson and Ryvarden (1986) did not. We in fact found rareand inconspicuous skeletocystidia (in the sense of Ryvarden 1991), which arise from the trama and protrude into the hymenium.
The pores in the American material are often slightly smaller (5-7 per mm) than in our new find (ca. 5 per mm), but the measurements are overlap-ping. Our specimen was much thicker (20 mm) than what the American authors report (Baxter 1938: mostly 2-3 mm, Gilbertson & Ryvarden 1986: 6 mm), but the Canadian specimen in the herbarium GB-J.E. is also fairly thick (10-13 mm). Fresh fruit bodies of our find gave off a strong, pleasant odour of menthol. Gilbertson (1981) reports that fresh basidiocarps have a strong sweet odour, and Gilbertson, Martin & Lindsey (1974) describe the odour 'like burnt sugar cake'.
Young, still thin basidiocarps resemble Antrodia serialis (Fr.) Donk, but even they have the distinctive pleasant smell. The extensive, fairly thick fruit bodies of A. sitchensis bring to mind Perenniporia subacida (Peck) Donk, and the two species have similar col-ours: creamy pores and a fairly bright brown border on the pseudopileus. However, P. subacida has strongly dextrinoid and cyanophilous hyphae, and its spores are more isodiametric and truncate, staining strongly in Cotton Blue and Melzer's reagent.
Old basidiocarps of A. sitchensis disintegrate in their inner parts into a chalky mass, and white spots of mycelium are also found in rotten wood adjacent to the fungus. In this respect the species is reminiscent of Amyloporia crassa (P. Karsten) Bond. & Singer, and the resemblance is enhanced in the microscope by the hyphal configuration and the presence of sharp cystidioles. However, A. crassa has wider spores, its sections exude oily droplets in microscopical mounts, and KOH makes its skeletal hyphae swell into a messy, dissolving, transparent substance. Macroscopically, they differ from each other: A. crassa has a white pore surface, it very seldom forms a pseudopileus and this is never brown. Nor does A. crassa have any distinctive smell.
A. sitchensis does not fit well in the genus Antrodia sensu stricto. It lacks the narrowly ellipsoid shape of the spores, seen in Antrodia heteromorpha (Fr.: Fr.) P. Karsten and its relatives, and its basidial elements are shorter and thicker-based than in Antrodia s. str. The strong odour, distinctly layered tubes, woody consistency and the presence of 'branched skeletals' (or binding hyphae) in old subiculum bring to mind the genus Fomitopsis. In Antrodia skeletal hyphae run mostly in a subparallel fashion along the tube trama or are at least straighter and more spaced; the tightly interlocked structure of A. sitchensis is strikingly different and would make the species fit better in Fomitopsis or Amyloporia. Affinity with Amyloporia is suggested by the amyloidity of the skeletals, presence of sharp-pointed cystidioles, spore shape and the degeneration of the subiculum and the oldest tube layers. However, if Antrodia is understood in the wide sense of Gilbertson and Ryvarden (1986), A. sitchensis can fit within its limits.
The Finnish specimen of A. sitchensis was growing on a large, fallen, and decorticated trunk of Pinus sylvestris lying on the lower slope of a shady and humid gorge. The tree was fairly strongly decayed and almost completely covered with moss. The wet and shady bottom of the gorge was occupied by mixed spruce-dominated forest with many large, fallen trunks of Picea abies and Populus tremula.
A. sitchensis is new to Finland, and this is one of the very first finds of the species outside western North America. Our identification has already been reported by Kaaro (1992). We are aware that the draft of the forthcoming book on European polypores (by Gilbertson and Ryvarden) includes an earlier record of the species in Europe. In North America it is found from Alaska and British Columbia in the north, along the Rocky Mountains to Arizona and New Mexico in the south (Baxter 1938, Gilbertson & Budington 1970, Gilbertson, Burdsall & Larsen 1975). An isolated record originates from New York (Gilbertson & Ryvarden 1986).
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Antrodia sitchensis (Baxter) Gilb. & Ryv.
Finland. Kainuu: Kuhmo, Louhivaara, Pinus sylvestris, Grid 27°E 70893:6296, 26.IX.1991 Penttilä 2581 (H, R.P., T.N.).
Other specimens examined: Canada. British Columbia: Natural Bridge, down log of Pinus contorta, 3.VIII.1960 Hughes (DAOM 125959). Vancouver Island, Little Qualicum River, fallen Picea sitchensis, 27.VIII.1938 Touzeau & Mounce (DAOM 8266); same but without date (GB-1.E). Vancouver Is-land, Oyster River, at base of P. sitchensis, 17.IX.1938 Touzeau (DAOM 8447). Queen Charlotte Islands, Church Creek, butt of windthrown P. sitchensis, 10.VII.1946 Forster (DAOM 125027).
A description of the Finnish material is enclosed here to serve as a basis for comparison with American material of the species.
Basidiocarps perennial, resupinate, finally remarkably large, ca. 70 x 10 cm wide along a fallen trunk, 1.5-2 cm thick in the thickest part, consistency corky when fresh, woody in dry condition. Old parts of the basidiocarps bordered by up to 1.5 cm wide upper surface (pseudopileus), which is sepia-coloured at base, amber, ochraceous or rusty brown in major part and creamy white at the margin; pseudopileal margin blunt but well defined. Sterile margin of resupinate areas very narrow, undifferentiated. Pore surface creamy white in fresh condition and ochraceous cream to honey-coloured when dry, surface fairly even; pores round, (4-)5 per mm, separated by fairly thick, sturdy dissepiments. Section: Subiculum mostly very thin in young basidiocarps, white; subiculum and old tubes disintegrate into a chalky mass in old fruit bodies. Tubes cork-coloured and sharply delimited into annual layers, which are 1-1.5 mm thick and number up to 7-10 or even more in the oldest part of the basidiocarp. Fresh basidiocarp with a strong and pleasant odour, taste bitter.
Hyphal system dimitic (or indistinctly trimitic), all hyphae negative in Cotton Blue. Generative hyphae with clamp connections, mostly thin-walled, but in some old parts sclerified, especially in the subiculum. Skeletal hyphae dominating in all parts, 2-2.5 µm in diam, tightly packed and strongly interwoven in tube trama, hyaline, unchanged in KOH, acyanophilous, but distinctly amyloid; skeletals unbranched in trama and in most of the subiculum, but old subiculum also bears vegetative hyphae with long branches. Granulous, resinous matter often encrusted along the hyphae. Hymenium soon degenerating and then mostly composed of cystidioles, which are abundant and vary in shape from ventricose to subulate, lanceolate or mucronate. Basidiospores short-cylindrical with a blunt, rounded distal end and sometimes slightly curved apicular region, smooth-and thin-walled, inamyloid, indextrinoid, acyanophilous, 4.6-5.7 x 2-2.5 µm.
 
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