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Page number:17 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Clavulinopsis appalachiensis (Coker) Corner, Ann. Bot. Mem. 1: 355. 1950. Figs 25-30. Clavaria appalachiensis Coker, Clavarias of United States and Canada, p. 53. 1923.
ILLUSTRATIONS: Coker (1923-pl 10, 91, Figs 13, 14).
Fruiting bodies 20-90 x 1-5 mm, simple clubs, solitary, gregarious or caespitose in clusters of 2-4, but not fasciculate; stem portion distinct from hymenial portion in color and texture. Color of stem portion lemon yellow (Coker) to ochraceous orange when dry (base slightly lighter); color of hymenial portion creamy to creamy yellow (Coker). Club portion brittle, stem portion more elastic to somewhat cartilaginous. Club often hollowed by grubs. Taste and odor none (Coker).
No macrochemical tests attempted. Scattered on soil or leaf litter in deciduous or mixed woods.
Contextual hyphae with cells 20-45 x 6-9 µm, generally parallel with little branching or anastomoses; thin-walled, hyaline, septa with or without clamp connections (Figs 25, 26), clamps large and conspicuous when present. Subhymenial hyphae 2-3 µm diam, tortuous, highly branched, conspicuously clamped (Fig 30); subhymenial layer heavily pigmented, and well marked from the contextual portion. Basidia 35-60 x 5.5-8 µm, elongate-clavate, conspicuously clamped; 2- (Coker, 1923; Bauch, 1927) 4-sterigmate (Fig 29); sterigmata stout, up to 9 µm long. Hymenial sterile elements 2-3 µm diam, occasionally protruding beyond the hymenium (Fig 28).
Spores (6.0-)6.4-7.4 x (4.9-)6.0-7.5 µm, globose, smooth, thin-walled, uniguttulate to multiguttulate, weakly but distinctly apiculate, white in mass (Fig 27).
Coker's separation of this species was based on the sharp texture and color distinction between the stem and hymenial portions, but specimens of Clavulinopsis helvola and C. laeticolor often have the same characteristic. C. helvola, which bears echinulate-warted spores, and C. laeticolor, which possesses strongly apiculate, ovoid spores, can be easily separated from C. appalachiensis on spore morphology.
The most interesting feature of the species is the common lack of clamp connections on the contextual hyphae. The clamps which are present are sometimes small and inconspicuous, but are usually large and asymetrical-characteristic of the genus. Unclamped septa are not rare, and appear to be perfectly normal in every other respect. They are not secondary, but are slightly constricted just as are those which bear clamp connections. This feature may place C. appalachiensis in a rather important phylogenetic position (see discussion of phylogeny above).
Coker (1947) indicated the possible synonymy of C. appalachiensis and Clavaria globospora Kauffman. The type and authentic specimens of C. globospora are no longer adequate for study (see discussion under "species incertae sedis," p. 32), but it is a species of Clavaria.
The range of Clavulinopsis appalachiensis is more extensive than Coker (1923) reported. Coker's own collections all came from the southern Appalachian Mountains, but he received a few collections from Overholts. I have also seen specimens from Algonquin Provincial Park (Ontario-TRTC) and Nova Scotia (KRS), extending the range to the temperate climate of eastern North America, probably throughout the Appalachian chain.
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