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Page number:19 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Clavulinopsis fusiformis (Sowerby per Fries) Corner, Ann. Bot. Mem. 1: 367. 1950. PL 4 µm, B; Figs 31-37. Clavaria fusiformis [Sowerby] Fries, Systema Mycologicum 1: 480-481. 1821.
=Clavaria compressa Schweinitz, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 11. 4: 182. 1832. (non C. compressa Schroeter, 1889, vel C. campressa Berkeley, 1842.). =Clavaria platyclada Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 23: 419. 1896.
ILLUSTRATIONS: Pomerleau (1951-pl 1, Fig 3); Coker (1923-pl 11, 12, 82, Fig 14, pl 83, Fig 5); Massee (1892-pl 34, Fig 4); Moller (1958-Fig 147, pl 1; Fig b); Ramsbottom (1953-pl 28a, XIX): Julliard-Hartmann (1919-pl 47, Fig 1); van Overeem (1923b-taf III, Fig 2).
Fruiting bodies 10-150 x 2-10 mm, usually simple clubs, rarely branched once or twice near the apex, the axils Innate; often more or less flattened; solid when young, becoming hollow in age, densely fascicled, arising from a single primordium, but not significantly joined together above the line of the substrate except in rare cases; base white or whitish, glabrous, minutely lined, quickly merging into the bright yellow club, with the apex usually darker in the reddish or brownish shades, especially in age; apices acute to narrowly rounded, rarely blunt to truncate. Stem flesh dull green in FeSO4, purple black in FeSO4 + ETOH; hymenium gray-green in FeSO4, purple-black in FeSO4 + ETOH, and orange in KOH. Gregarious, often in troops, on soil, usually in open areas with grasses.
Contextual hyphae of two widths; wide hyphae up to 12 µm diam, hyaline, bearing clamp connections, somewhat inflated, often with slightly thickened walls, especially toward the fruiting body base; narrow hyphae 1.5-3.5 µm µm diam, hyaline or slightly pigmented, not inflated (Fig 37). Subhymenial hyphae 1.5-3 µm diam, tortuous, pigmented by yellowish guttules in the cytoplasm, producing basidia in clusters. Hymenium thickening; basidia 35-65 x 4.5-8 µm , elongate-clavate, clamped, 4 (rarely 2-, 3-) sterigmate; sterigmata stout, 5-10 µm long, slightly incurved (Figs 31-34).
Spores 4.8-7.5(-9.2) x 4.5-7.2(-9.2) µm, globose, subglobose or very broadly ovate, smooth, slightly thick-walled, uniguttulate to vitreous-opalescent (under phase microscopy) in age, with a stout, conical apiculus up to 2 µm long (Figs 35, 36.)
This is certainly the most cosmopolitan species of the genus. Its distribution includes Europe, much of Asia, Australia and the Western Hemisphere. Remarkably it is apparently almost absent from the far western United States, Doty (1944) mentioned only a single collection from Mt. Hood, Oregon. It is relatively common in the east from Florida to Nova Scotia and west to Michigan.
The color of the fruiting bodies is amazingly constant, although color intergradations with other species is problematic (see C. laeticolor var. antillarum). The normal colors are consistently reported as "primrose yellow" (Massee, 1892; Coker, 1923), "canary yellow" (Donk, 1933; Burt, 1922), or "lemon yellow" (Leathers, 1956a; Petch, 1925), so that Cleland's (1934) description of C. fusiformis as "salmon orange" becomes incorrect almost on the face of it. Corner (1950) interpreted Cleland's fungus as C. amoena (see C. aurantio-cinnabarina f. amoena). Petch (1925) also described C. fusiformis as "sometimes orange-yellow."
The species can be interpreted as an evolutionary intermediate between the gregarious, simple clubs (C. laeticolor) and the more branched species (C. umbrinella and C. corniculata). Such a trend toward branching through fruiting body fasciculation and coalescence within this genus seems limited to the series with strongly apiculate spores.
Together with C. corniculata, C. fusiformis is one of the best known and best understood species of the complex. Although C. fusiformis was validated by Fries, there seems no pressing reason to name a neotype specimen for it as long as no doubt exists as to its identity.
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