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Page number:833 
Description type:Pathology 
Description:Pathogenicity. BSL-3. The species may disseminate in humans with AIDS which live in (Sirisanthana & Sirisanthana, 1995; Ukarapol et al., 1998) or have visited (Kok et al., 1994; Heath et al., 1995; Depraetere et al., 1998) endemic areas, rarely in healthy individuals (Louthrenoo et al., 1994; Kwan et al., 1997). Diagnosis and culture can be performed by fine needle aspiration (Chaiwun et al., 2002). Dependence on acquired cellular immunity was proven in an animal experimental infection (Kudeken et al., 1996). The mycosis is acquired by inhalation; first lesions are pulmonary (Breton et al., 1998). It occurs as an intracellular mycosis, producing small, rounded arthroconidia (2-5 µm diam) inside macrophages. The typical cutaneous lesions may be absent (Kantipong et al., 1998); endophthalmitis may occur (Vilar et al., 2000). Osteomyelitis is rare (Pun & Fang, 2000). When untreated, the mycosis is mostly fatal. The species naturally occurs in bamboo rats and similar mammals in South East Asia (Chariyalertsak et al., 1996); strains from different host animals show molecular differences (Vanittanakom et al., 1996).
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