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Page number:218 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Multiclavula vernalis (Schw.) Petersen. 1967. Amer. Midl. Nat. 77: 216.
= Clavaria vernalis Schweinitz. 1822. Schr. Nat. Ges. Leipzig 1: 112. Clavulinopsis vernalis (Schw.) Corner. 1950. Ann. Bot. Mem. 1: 394. Fruitbodies (Fig. 4) up to 14 x 2 . 5 mm, simple clubs, clavate, arising from a small mycelial pad on alga-covered soil; stipe equal, up to 6 x 1.5 mm, pale yellow-orange to yellow; club subclavate to cylindrical, bluntly rounded apically, sometimes minutely longitudinally rugulose, pastel orange, easily distinguished from stipe; flesh of club solid, white. Odour and taste negligible.
Tramal hyphae of club of two types: (1) medullary hyphae 3-7 µm diam., thick-walled (wall up to 1 µm thick), hyaline, inconspicuously clamped, loosely packed, free, hardly parallel, commonly anastomosed; contents multiguttulate, refringent; (2) cortical hyphae 3-12 µm diam., thin- to thick-walled (wall up to 0.5 µm thick), inconspicuously clamped, constricted at septa. Hymenium thickening; mature basidia (Fig. 5) 22-28 x 10-12 µm, urniform, clamped, not persistent after spore discharge; contents subrefringent, homogeneous; sterigmata 4, divergent, up to 5 µm long, straight.
Spores (Fig. 6) 6.1-8.3 x 2.9-3.6 µm (E = 1.89-2.56; Em = 2.19; Lm = 7.18 µm), cylindrical to subreniform, thin-walled; contents opalescent to minutely granular; hilar appendix small, not prominent.
Basidial development is typical of the genus. Basidial initials are subspherical to very broadly ellipsoid, and apparently hold this shape for long periods of time. Fruitbodies in this genus are extremely persistent, and this period of basidial morphological stability may correspond to periods of dry weather, when the fruitbodies dry and become cartilaginous. When water is imbibed, the fruitbody swells again. Basidial growth resumes by a broad tip elongating from the apex of the primordium. This tip is narrower than the primordium, so that the resultant structure is swollen proximally. In time, the emerging tip inflates somewhat apically, so that the mature basidium is urniform. Squash mounts exhibit mostly collapsed basidia, with very few mature basidia with sterigmata.
The species was described from north-eastern North America, but Petersen (1967) also included European distribution. Synonymy is more extensive than that stated here and can be found in Petersen (1967). No former reports of this fungus from Australia have been found.
The species is rather easily diagnosed by the following characters: (1) habit on soil; (2) pastel orange, clavate clubs; (3) clamp connections; (4) sterigmata number of four; (5) spore statistics. In Tasmania it is most commonly found in the south-west (see Fig. 7), where it fruits on wet, coarse sandy or silty soil with a thin film of algae. The species typically forms extensive mats and occurs together with various bryophytes (e.g. Campylopus introflexus, Goebelobryum unguiculatum and Dicranoloma billardieri) and herbs (e.g. Utricularia spp.).
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