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Literature:
 
Page number:189 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Echinochaete ruficeps (Berkeley & Broome) Ryvarden, Norw. Jour. Bot. 19: 231. 1972. Figs. 7, 9a-c. Favolus ruficeps Berk. & Br., Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 14: 57. 1873.
Hexagonia ruficeps (Berk, & Br.) Petch, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Peradeniya 6: 143. 1916.
Sporophores l.1-4.0 cm wide, l.0-3.0 cm measured radially, varying in shape from dimidiate to flabelliform with a very reduced rudimentary stipe, to spathulate with a distinct stipe, 0.5-l.0 cm long, and 0.2-0.3 cm wide. Pileus red-brown above, appearing minutely scurfy-tomentose under a lens. Pores 0.5-l.0 mm wide and up to 2 mm in length toward the stipe, where they are large, radially elongated, and favoloid, but up to 15 per cm near the margin, where they are angular but more or less isodiametric. They are pinkish ochraceous buff, with thin, often torn dissepiments, and where there is a distinct stipe they are somewhat decurrent. Hyphal structure dimitic, consisting of clamp-bearing generative hyphae and dextrinoid, bovista-type binding hyphae. Hymenial setae up to 35 µm long, and 12 µm wide, conspicuous, dark brown, lanceolate organs ornamented with short, sharp spines, and with a thickened wall. On the edge of the disspeiments, these organs give way to similar elements, but with a less definite and more hyphal appearance. Cuticular setae abundant as elongated, brown, thick-walled, fusiform elements with occasional sharp lateral spines near the apex. A few of the setae may be devoid of spines and some show secondary scalariform septation toward the tip. Spores 8.75-12.0 (-13.75) x 3.2-4.0 µm, thin-walled, hyaline, varying from narrowly elliptic to subcylindric.
The above description is based exclusively on the type collection in K: Sri Lanka, Peradeniya, coll. G. H. K. Thwaites (No. 46), Nov. 1867. However, E. ruficeps would seem to be widely distributed, with collections from East Africa and Sri Lanka. There are specimens at K from Kenya: on Cupressus macrocarpa Hartw., Mt. Elgon, 8000 ft alt., coll. Mrs. P. H. Irwin (Nos. 534, 546), 20 March 1963; Castle Forest, coll. W. A. Rodgers (M. K. P37), 14 Nov. 1964; Castle Rock, 8 100 ft alt., coll. J. Furtado (M. K. P59), 16 Nov. 1964. Sri Lanka: in addition to the type collection there are the following: Peradeniya, coll. T. Petch (Nos. 3484, 3558), 9 June 1912 and 4 Aug. 1912, respectively. Petch (1916) also reports an additional collection from the same locality.
Petch (1916) published the following account of the fresh plant which is "pallid to pale reddish-brown, with rufous radiating streaks . . . , becoming dark red-brown when dry." He also noted that it was "scabrous with minute fascicles of brown tomentum" and that the margin of the pileus was ciliate. In addition he observed that the pores were `hexagonal, large; walls sparsely setulose with minute, black, conical setae." One of the Kenyan specimens was said to be rich umber brown when fresh. Another Kenyan sporophore is somewhat larger than usual, in being up to 5 cm wide, 4.5 cm measured radially, and 0.7 cm thick behind.
 
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