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Remarks (public):This species is distinct from other Echinochaete species by the larger and elongated pores [(1)2-4 x (0.5)1- 2 mm], the pale-colored pileus surface in fresh condition, the arboriform skeleto-binding hyphae usually without dextrinoid reaction, cylindrical setoid elements with lateral spines on the pileus surface and the narrower basidiospores (Q=3.2). Echinochaete ruficeps also has elongated pores and a light-colored pileus, but differs by the smaller basidiocarps, smaller pore size and wider basidiospores. 
Description type:Original description 
Description:Basidiocarps annual, laterally stipitate, solitary. Pileus dimidiate, flat to convex, 1-4.8 cm in diam, up to 7 mm thick; surface first downy fibrillose, drying often more glabrous, white to orange white (10YR9/2) in fresh condition, gray orange to brownish yellow (10YR7-8/6-8) when dry, often with dark brown spots (5YR4-7/2-8), azonate; margin acute, entire. Stipe cylindrical, equal, up to 5 mm long, 2-5 mm in diam, glabrous, smooth, light brown (10YR7-8/4-8), lower side often covered with pores. Context fleshy in fresh condition, drying brittle, up to 4 mm thick, white to cream (10YR9/4). Pore surface cream to brownish orange (10YR9/4, 10YR5-6/4-8), pores radially elongated, (1)2-4 — (0.5)1-2 mm, dissepiments thin, entire to slightly lacerate. Tubes brownish orange (10YR6-8/4), up to 2 mm deep. Hyphal system dimitic with generative hyphae and skeleto-binding hyphae. Contextual generative hyphae 2-4.5 µm in diam, thin-walled, hyaline, with clamp connections. Contextual skeleto-binding hyphae pale yellow, thick-walled, moderately branched, interwoven, non-dextrinoid, 4-8 µm in diam at basal stalk. Tramal generative hyphae same as in context. Tramal skeleto-binding hyphae pale yellow, thick-walled to solid, moderately branched, interwoven, non-dextrinoid, 4-7 µm in diam. Setoid elements on the pileus cylindrical to cylindro-clavate with pointed apex, yellowish brown to brown, thick-walled, 30-75 µm long, 5-7.5 µm in diam, with short lateral spines near the apex; in the hymenium subulate to lanceolate, thick-walled, pale to dark brown, 20-40 µm long, 3-8 µm in diam, with sharp spines up to 8 µm long, often comprising hyphal pegs, 30-75 — 20-45 µm. Basidia broadly clavate, 17-30 — 6-8 µm, with four sterigmata. Basidiospores cylindrical, hyaline, non-dextrinoid, 8-12 — 2.5-4 µm, L = 10.23 µm, W = 3.13 µm, R = 2.25-4, r = 3.16 (n = 88/2).
Distribution Hitherto known only from subtropical areas of Japan.
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