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 Add this item to the list   Flammulina velutipes (Curt.: Fr.) Sing.
Page number:59 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Flammulina velutipes (Curt.: Fr.) Sing.
Agaricus velutipes Curt., Fl. Londin. 4: 212, pl. 70. 1777.-Agaricus velutipes Curt.: Fr., Syst.
mycol. 1: 119. 1821.-Collybia velutipes (Curt.: Fr.) Kumm., Führ. Pilzk. 116. 1871. -Pleurotus velutipes (Curt.: Fr.) Quél., Enchir.: 147. 1886.-Gymnopus velutipes (Curt.: Fr.) Murrill, N. Amer. Fl. 9: 361. 1916.-Myxocollybia velutipes (Curt.: Fr.) Sing. in Schweiz. Z. Pilz. 17: 72. 1939 (inval. name).1-Flammulina velutipes (Curt.: Fr.) Sing. in Lilloa 22: 307. (`1949') 1951. Lectotype (select. mihi): Curtis, 1.c. pl. 70.
Agaricus nigripes Bull., Herb. France: pl. 344. 1788.
Collybia veluticeps Rea in Trans. Brit. mycol. Soc. 1: 157. 1900.- Collybia eriocephala Rea spud A.L. Smith & Rea in Trans. Brit. mycol. Soc. 3: 46. 1908 (inval. name change, superfluous name).2
var. velutipes
Basidiocarps in small to large clusters on wood, more rarely gregarious or solitary. Seldom on subterranean wood.
Pileus (8-)l5-45(-95) mm wide, from convex soon plano-convex, finally sometimes plano-concave, often with low umbo or with flattened to slightly depressed centre, with margin at first inflexed but later straight or slightly reflexing and then often undulating; from golden yellow (2.5 Y 8/8) or ochraceous yellow (10 YR 8/8-8/7), rarely more greenish yellow (5 Y 8/8), to ochraceous brown (10 YR 6/8) or orange-red-brown (5 YR 5/8 to 7.5 YR 5/8), and sometimes uniformly so, but usally with darker ochraceous brown to orange-red-brown or dark red-brown (5 YR 4/4) centre and paler yellow margin, more rarely uniformly greenish yellow or buff (5 Y 8/6, 2.5 Y 8/6, 2.5 Y 7/87/6), somewhat hygrophanous, slightly fading when drying up, when moist often outermost margin darker and short translucently striate (up to 0.2 R), densely pubescent when very young, later subpubescent to glabrous, greasy to very viscid when moist, sub-viscid to dry when dehydrated; pileipellis not peeling at first but easily peeling later on.
Lamellae moderately crowded to very crowded, in large old specimens sometimes very distant (10-16, rarely 6-8 per 10 mm half-way R), adnate, sinuate or (deeply) emarginate, sometimes nearly free, rarely seceding and forming a pseudocollarium, rather narrow to moderately broad (2.5-7 mm), elastic, whitish, pale huffy cream (2.5 Y 8/4), ochraceous yellow (10 YR 8/8-7/8), more rarely ochraceous buff to sordid buff (2.5 Y 8/6, 7/6, 7/4) sometimes even brownish ochre (10 YR 6/6), sometimes with brown spots, with slightly irregular but entire edge; (1-)2-3 tiers of lamellulae and these occasionally anastomosing.
Stipe (15-)20-50(-155) x (1.5-)2.5-6(-18) mm, cylindrical or attenuate downwards, rarely slightly broadening downwards, sometimes rooting (pseudorhiza up to 65 x 3 mm), sometimes with subbulbous base, connate below, frequently somewhat flattened, fistulose to hollow, usually in the very beginning cream to pale yellow (2.5 Y 8/6), soon darkening from base upwards and then via ochraceous yellow (10 YR 7/8), yellow-brown and rusty ochraceous (7.5 YR 5/8) to reddish brown or dull dark (red-) brown (5 YR 3/4, 10 YR 3/4, 3/2), outermost apex long remaining pale yellow but finally completely blackish brown, densely concolorously pubescent to velutinous but pale apex sometimes red-brown punctate, at base occasionally hirsuut with pale hairs.
Context elastic, white to yellowish in pileus and upper part of stipe, somtimes darker under pileipellis, sordid yellowish to greenish yellow to brownish yellow in lower part of stipe. Smell rather typical, pleasant, somewhat fruity with a resinaceous component; when crushed sourish fungoid. Taste indistinct to fungoid, sometimes slightly bitterish. Spore deposit cream-white to pale cream, lb-(2a) in Russula-scale of Romagnesi (1967).
Spores (5.5-)6-11.5(-12) x (2.5-)3-4(-5) µm, Q 1.65-3.45(-3.8), mean Q 2.05-3.05, elongate-ellipsoid to cylindrical or even bacillar, sometimes slightly bent, with small abrupt apiculus, colourless to very pale yellowish in NH4OH, thin-walled, inamyloid, non-cyanophilous, easily germinating. Basidia 25-36 x 5.5-7.2 µm, 4-spored (in some collections a small percentage 5-spored), with clamp. Cheilocystidia scarce and scattered to rather abundant, 32-62(-70) x 6-16 µm, utriform to lageniform, intermixed with basidia, thin- to slightly thick-walled, colourless to somewhat yellowish-brownish. Pleurocystidia very scarce to fairly abundant, 35-70(-90) x (7-)10-21 µm, from cylindrico-clavate or broadly utriform to slenderly lageniform or fusiform, slightly thick-walled, colourless. Lamellitrama regular, but when young outer layer in upper part diverged, composed of 3-11 µm wide, colourless, thin-walled hyphae. Pileipellis an ixotrichoderm with pileocystidia and ixohyphidia; pileocystidia abundant to very rare, (30-)50-110(-140) x 5-13 µm, slenderly lageniform to hair-shaped, often with crooked base, sometimes septate, sometimes capitate, from colourless to yellow-brown or red-brown, with up to 0.4 µm thick walls, with their lower 1/3 to 2/3 embedded in gelatinous substance; ixohyphidia abundant, thin-walled and colourless to slightly thick-walled and (yellow-)brown in lower part, branching at wide angles and narrow branches
often submoniliform, tapering to a less than 1 µm thick apex, completely embedded in gelatinous substance. Covering of stipe made up of: (i) at apex large, up to 160 µm long, lageniform, colourless or at the base brown or entirely brown, sometimes somewhat encrusted caulocystidia, usually intermixed with colourless, pale brown or golden yellow-brown 2-5 µm wide hairs tapering towards frequently colourless apices; (ii) in the middle 2-7 µm wide (colourless to predominantly) red-brown hairs mixed with rare to rather abundant caulocystidia; (iii) at base very long 2-4.5(-7) µm wide, red-brown, agglutinate hairs in bundles. Stipitetrama composed of parallel 7-16 µm wide, cylindrical hyphae with slightly thickened yellowish walls, sometimes intermixed with a few golden yellow to red-brown straight vascular hyphae. Clamps abundant.
Habitat & distribution. -Throughout the year but abundant only from September to March; on stumps, stems (also of living trees) and fallen branches of deciduous, very rarely coniferous trees, only occasionally on subterranean wood; in the material studied showing a preference for Salix, Populus, Fraxinus and Sambucus. In the Netherlands abundant in areas with rich alluvial soils, particularly clay, but rather rare and locally lacking in those with poor diluvial soils.

forma velutipes Figs. 8, 12
Spores [200/23/20] 6-9.5 x (2.5-)3-4(-5) µm, average Q (1.85-)2.0-2.3. Very common from August to March, occasionally also in summer. Found on Ulmus, Populus, Fraxinus, Alnus, Fagus, Betula, Juglans, Rosa, Passiflora and Picea.
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