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Page number:14 
Remarks (internal):This is primarily a Mediterranean species which extends into central and northern Europe. In the latter areas, however, records are scattered in time and place and may represent chance introductions, as presumably does the record from California, for Cooke (1961) had not had a Clathrus in California. Records become sparse towards the eastern part of the range and it is notable that Hollos did not have the species from Hungary. In Britain, apart from a record in a Dublin garden and two close together in west Scotland the fungus
appears confined to districts south of a line from the Wash to Dyfed and its status here is disputed. Ramsbottom (1953) thought it might well be native but Dennis (1955) considered its restriction to a few localities where it almost invariably appears in pleasure grounds or gardens indicates the status of an
Records from Japan, starting with Minakata (1928) and Kawamura (1928) seem to have been based on C. kusanoi. Records from the West Indies are suspect in view of possible confusion with C. crispus. Stevenson (1975) listed both C. cancellatus and C. crispus for Puerto Rico but questioned the record of the latter as possibly referable to the former. The reverse is surely more likely.
Tournefort (1700) noted a yellow form but none such has been encountered since.
Noteworthy features of this species are the marked colour differences between the inside and outside of the receptacle and the rather large spores. Both these features suggest a connection also with the anthuroid series. However, the thinning of the arms towards the base of the receptacle to such a degree that the connection between them is extremely tenuous seems to foreshadow the situation in the remaining species of the laternoid series, all of which have the arms completely free at the base. Indeed, in Fischer's f. fayodii some of the vertical arms are actually free at the base and the number of transverse arms is considerably reduced. This somewhat intermediate position between two well defined series, plus the large size, clumsy construction, etc., combine to confirm that C. ruber is indeed a rather primitive species of the genus.
In contrast to Phallus impudicus, which bears the unmistakable signature of an aphrodisiac, C. ruber has had an ill reputation in southern European folklore, presumably undeserved. Barla (1858) described a, hardly credible, case of poisoning following its ingestion and Pollini reported finding it growing on a human skull in a tomb in a deserted church. According to Ramsbottom (1953), Gascons regard it as a cause of cancer and in other parts of France it is said to produce cutaneous eruptions or convulsions. Marchand (1976) however, admits the egg to be edible: `Dans l'oeuf le Clathre rouge presente une odeur et une saveur de radis: on peut, a la rigueur, le consommer dans cet état.'
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Clathrus ruber Micheli ex Persoon, Synopsis 2: 241 (1801) .
(Clathrus ruber Micheli, Nov. Pl. Gen.: 214 (1729), devalidated name). Clathrus flavescens Tournef. ex Pers., Synopsis 2 : 242 (1801) .
(Boletus cancellatus flavescens Tournefort, Inst. rei. Herb.: 561 (1700), de-validated name).
(Clathrus volvaceus Bulliard, Herbier de la France 2, Champignons: 190 (1784), devalidated name).
Clathrus cancellatus Tournef. ex Fries, Syst. Myc. 2: 288 (1823).
Clathrus cancellatus forma typicus Fischer, Denkschr. Schweiz. Ges. Nat. 32: 58 (1890).
(Boletus cancellatus purpureus Tournef., Inst. rei. Herb.: 561 (1700), devalidated name).
Clathrus nicaeensis Barla in Luersson, Med.-Pharm. Bot. 1: 275 (1879).
Egg subglobose to obpyriform, up to 6 cm diameter, cream to greyish fawn, surface smooth but marked by reticulations indicating the site of insertion of the peridial sutures, rooting by a thick mycelial strand; dehiscence irregular from the apex, leaving the lower meshes of the receptacle encased in a volva; in section showing a thin peridium, and gelatinous layer up to 3 mm thick, traversed by conspicuous, white, peridial sutures.
Receptacle expanding up to about 12 X 9 cm, obovoid, with a more or less regular network of meshes, numbering up to about 30, more or less isodiametric above but often vertically elongated below where partially hidden by the volva. Arms salmon pink on the outside, shading to scarlet within, up to 1.5 cm wide at the top of the receptacle, tapering almost to nothing at the extreme base, triangular in section, outer face almost flat, without fenestration but slightly rugulose with a tendency to be transversely wrinkled, sometimes with a faint longitudinal groove; lateral faces gently curved, with frequent large openings to the exterior. Context of the arm
apparently spongy, made up of one wide inner tube and about two indistinct rows of tubes towards the outside, tubes irregular in diameter and relative position, intercommunicating and frequently fenestrate on the posterolateral faces of the arm. Gleba attached to the inner faces of the arms evenly over the whole receptacle except near the base, from which it is absent, olive-green before dehiscence, becoming olive-brown, odour strong, of decaying meat. Spores bacilloid, almost hyaline, 4-6 X 1.5-2 µm. Fig. 3.
Type locality: Italy.
Distribution: The species is recorded from the following countries: Azores, Belgium, Czechoslovakia (Moravia, Slovakia-Kuthan 1975), East and West Germany (Benkert, 1965), France, Italy, Iran, Irish Republic, Yugoslavia (Lohwag, 1935), Luxembourg, Monaco, Poland (Skirgiello & Rudnicka-Jezierska, 1963), Portugal, Spain (including Majorca & Tenerife), Switzerland, United Kingdom (Channel Is, England, Wales, Scotland), United States of America, U.S.S.R. (Lithuania, Leningrad, Moscow area, Crimea).
Selected Icones: Micheli, Nova Pl. Genera, Tab. 93 (1729). - Bulliard, Herbier de la France 2, Champignons, Tab. 441 (1784) - Persoon in Schaeffer, Fungorum Icones Ed. Nov. 4, frontispiece (1800). Krombholz, Nat. Abd. Besch. Schwamme, Tab. 18 Fig. 1-9 (1834). Hussey, Ill. Brit. Mycol., Tab. 86 (1847). - Barla, Champ. de Nice, Tab. 45, fig. 4-12 (1859). - Fischer, Denkshr. Schweiz. Ges. Nat. 32, Tab. 1, Tab. 2 fig. 7; Tab. 5 fig. 37 (f. fayodii) (1890; copied in Engler & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(1**) fig. 128, 129 (1898) & 2 Aufl. 7A fig. 57A (1933)).
Gillet, Champ. France, Gasteromycetes (1891). - Lloyd, Mycol. Notes 26, fig. 160 (1907) ; Mycol. writings 2, Tab. 112 (1908) ; Synops. Known Phall., Fig. 70 (1909). - Rolland, Atlas Champ. Fr., Tab. 108 fig. 245 (1910). - Paul, Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 27, Tab. 6 (1918). - Bresadola, Icon. Mycol. 1132 (1932). - Lohwag, Ann. Mycol. 33: 83, Fig. 1-5 (1935). - Ullbrich, Ber. Deutsch Bot. Ges. 62: 103, Fig. 3 & 4 (1950). - Ramsbottom, Mushrooms and Toadstools, Tab. 37b and Fig. 1X (1953). - Fabre, in Wasson & Wasson, Mushrooms, Russia and History, Tab. 3 (1957). Michael-Hennig, Handbuch fiir Pilzfreunde 2, Fig. 140 (1960) . - Heim, Champ. Europ. Ed. 2, jacket illustration; fig. 330B; Tab. 54 Fig. 2 (1969). - -Strani, Bull. Fed. Mycol. Dauphine-Savoie 15: 16 (1975). - Marchand, Champ. Nord Midi 4: 162 (1976). - Wendelbo in Eckblad, Iran J. Bot. 1: 67 (1976). - Dennis, Kew Bull. 32: 108, Fig. 4J (1977). - Caspary in Poelt & Jahn, Mitteleuropaische Pilze, Tab. 170 (not dated).
Many additional figures of this well-known fungus are listed by Saccardo, Sylloge Fungorum 19: 309-310 (1910). Those cited above are selected for their historical importance, high quality or value as vouchers for the distribution of the species.
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