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Page number:33 
Remarks (internal):This is the familiar West Indian species, one of the longest known but strangely lacking an adequate description before that by Wright (1949). In Jamaica it bears the common name `John Crow's Nose' in honour of the Rev. John Crow who perished in the cataclysmic Port Royal earthquake of 1692 but whose memory is perpetuated in the names of a number of outstanding members of the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms.
The oldest drawing, by Plumier, gives a much better idea of the normal shape of the receptacle than does the type figure based on a sketch by Poiteau. Unfortunately, subsequent authors have tended to accept Poiteau's idealized figure of a globose receptacle with equal-sized meshes as representative of the normal aspects of the species and have therefore been driven to propose new taxa for the typical ovoid specimens. In this connection Lloyd (1916, Myc. Not. 42: 585) eventually admitted his earlier opinion to have been erroneous and that his taxa were synonyms of C. crispus. Berkeley's var. obovatus was said to have the gleba on tubercles at the intersections of arms. There are some discrepancies between his description and figures, however, and no such tubercles can be found on the portion of type material at Kew, which shows the glebiferous corona typical of the species. Nor have such tubercles been subsequently reported by any other author and until their existence is confirmed var. obovatus is best reduced to synonymy.
Clathrus guttatus Fries from St Thomas in the Virgin Is. (former Danish West Indies) was based solely on a painting by Oersted. This was reproduced photographically by Lloyd (1909 Fig. 75) who thought the white spots painted all over the receptacle were intended to represent holes.* If so it does not correspond to C. crispus (or any other known Clathrus) and certainly no corona is shown, but on effete specimens this is often collapsed and hard to see. The general stature, red colour and geographical provenance make it likely Oersted had C. crispus, however, and the name is therefore cited tentatively in the synonymy above. Experience with other of Oersted's paintings has shown it to be very difficult to recognize any real fungus in them.
As already mentioned, C. crispus cannot easily be assigned to a place in any of the series. In general shape and the massive rather irregular structure of the arms it would be considered primitive, but the elegant glebiferous corona must be regarded as an advanced feature. This corona has no exact counterpart in any other species, for instance it is less obviously a modified innermost chamber than is the glebifer of Blumenavia. The situation of the glebifer in C. crispus results in the gleba being clearly divided into two entirely separate parts, one on each side of the arm, a situation not otherwise met with outside the structurally very different genus Lysurus. On the other
hand the tubular inner chamber of the arm of C. crispus is reminiscent of the tubular arm of Ileodictyon cibarium, particularly in regard to the concertina-like vernation.
One must thus conclude that C. crispus has no well known close relative but Bottomley (1948 p. 529) described an unnamed Clathrus from southern Africa which may be akin. No material of this has been seen but her description and illustrations suggest another member of this group. It has a red receptacle with a continuous large innermost tube and a complex arrangement of outer tubes. Surrounding each mesh is a fringe which seems to be the remains of a corona but may be a structure more like the fringe in C. preussii. Bottomley's fungus in any case evidently differs from C. crispus in its much narrower arms.
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Clathrus crispus Turpin, Dict. Sci. Nat. Atlas Acotyl., Tab. 49 (1820).
Clathria crispa (Turp.) Berkeley, Hooker's London J. Bot. 4: 68 (1845). Clathrella crispa (Turp.) E. Fischer, Denkschr. Schweiz. Ges. Nat. 36: 37 (1900).
Clathrus crispus var. obovatus Berk., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 9: 446 (1842).
Clathrus americanus Lloyd, Synops. Known Phall. 56 (1909). - C. crispus var. americanus (Lloyd) J. E. Wright, Corn. Inst. Nac. Invest. Cienc. Nat. B. Aires 1(2) : 6 (1949).
C. pseudocrispus Lloyd, Synops. Known Phall. 59 (1909).
(Boletus cancellatus, purpureus Plumier, Tractates de filicibus americanus (1705), devalidated name).
?Clathrusguttatus Fries, Nov. Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal Ser. 3, 1 : 133 (1851).
Volva white, up to 7 cm diameter, globose to ovoid, marked by a reticulum of grooves opening by irregular splitting at the apex. Receptacle ellipsoid, up to 10 x 15 cm, scarlet above, paler below where hidden by the volva, meshes numbering up to 50, isodiametric above, more or less elongated below; arms rather massive, up to about 1 cm wide, united at the base into an obconical structure, triangular in section with the base of the triangle outermost, consisting of a large inner tube and a variable number of outer tubes; glebifer attached to the two outer angles of each arm in the form of a corona and forming a regularly corrugated and pleated membrane surrounding the mesh. Gleba foetid of the usual kind. Spores elliptic-cylindric, slightly greenish, 3.8-4.2 x 1.8-2.2 µm (Wright). Basidia were described by Wright (1949). Fig. 9.
Type locality: Haiti.
Distribution. U.S.A. (Florida), Mexico, West Indies (Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico), Central and South America to Uruguay and northern Argentina (Cordoba).
Icones: Plumier, Tractates de filicibus americanus, Tab. 167H (1705). Turpin, Dict. Sci. Nat. Atlas, Tab. 49 (1820), reproduced in Lloyd, Synopsis, Fig. 76 (1909). - Berkeley, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 9, Tab. 11 (1842) reproduced in Engler & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1 (1**) Fig. 132B (1898). - Lloyd, Synops. Known Phall., Fig. 71 (C. americanus) ; Fig. 77 (C. pseudocrispus) (1909). - Wright, Corn. Inst. Nac. Invest. Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires 1(2), Tab. facing p. 8, Fig. 1(1949). - Ulbrich, Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 62: 103, Fig. 1 & 2 (1950). - Dennis, Kew Bull. 8: 312, Fig. 7 (1953).
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