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Page number:120 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Bovistella radicata (Dur. & Mont.) Pat. in Bull. Soc. mycol. Fr. 15: 55 (1899). Lycoperdon radicatum Dur. & Mont. in Dur., Expl. Sci. Algérie 1: 383 (1848). Additional synonyms: see Kreisel & Calonge (1993).
Selected descriptions: Reid (1953: 47-48); Kreisel and Calonge (1993: 19); Pilát (1937: 102-103); Schmitt (1978: 28-29).
Selected illustrations: Bull. Soc. Myc. France 42, Atlas pl. 14; Derbsch & Schmitt (1987: pl. 1, no. 166); Weber & Smith (1985: pl. 237); Schmitt (1978: p1.9 a-c); Reid (1953: 47; drawings); Kreisel & Calonge (1993: 19, drawing; 20, SEM microcharacters).
Diagnostic characters: resembles large Vascellum pratense or Handkea utriformis; Bovista-type capillitium; spores smooth, with long pedicels.
Fruitbodies in small groups or in fairy rings, very variable in size and shape, (2-)3-7(-25) cm diam., pyriform or more turbinate, with or without prominent pseudorhiza, normally firmly attached to substrate and long-lasting, opening with irregular, large, often star-like splitting of endoperidium. Exoperidium initially snow-white then cream to pale brown, furfuraceous and indistinctly spinulose; spines, especially on basal region, aggregated into pyramidal pegs. Endoperidium smooth, light grey to yellow-brown, darker at base, very old fruitbodies more grey and shiny and then very thin and papery. Pseudodiaphragm present, cup-shaped, felty. Pseudocolumella not present. Gleba initially yellow then deep ochre-brown to umber. Subgleba present and prominent, alveolate, occupying one third to half the fruitbody. Spore deposit olive-brown to umber.
Capillitium of Bovista-type, branching, elastic, up to 7.5(-14) µm broad at main branches, walls up to 1.5 µm thick, with regular to angular pores just visible on broader parts, golden brown to almost hyaline at tips. Spores 4.5-5 x 3.5-5 µm, globose to subglobose, appearing smooth to slightly asperulate (verruculose as seen by SEM), pedicels long, 2-15 µm, cylindrical, truncate.
Habitat: dry, more or less acid grasslands, roadside verges in open woodland, on well-drained, non-calcareous soils; appearing from May.
Distribution and frequency: known mainly from the warmer and continental parts of Europe, but nowhere common. Also known from northern Africa and North America, where said to be common in southern parts.

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