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Page number:126 
Remarks (internal):Kreisel (1989) gave a very long list of synonyms and stated the interspecific variation to be very great but as yet unresolved. Kreisel (1962) recognized five different `forms' mainly based on the shape of the fruitbodies. 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Handkea excipuliformis (Pers.: Pers.) Kreisel in Nova Hedw. 48: 283 (1989). Lycoperdon excipuliforme Pers.: Pers., Synops. Meth. Fung. 1: 143 (1801). Lycoperdon elatatum Massee in J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. London 1887: 710 (1887).
Additional synonyms: see Kreisel (1962) and Palmer (1968).
Selected descriptions: Kreisel (1962: 168-172); Lange (1990: 540-543); Eckblad (1955: 37-38).
Selected illustrations: Marchand (1976: pl. 373); Dähncke & Dähncke (1979: 567); Michael & al. (1986: pl. 146); Moser & Jülich (1989: 4); Phillips (1981: 246); Bon (1987: 305); Lange & Hora (1965: 217); Wakefield & Dennis (1981: pl. 111, f. 2).
Diagnostic characters: large and pestle-shaped; smaller subglobose forms can be separated from species of Lycoperdon (esp. L. molle) on the strongly verrucose spores and sinuous pores in the capillitium.
Fruitbody 5-20 cm tall, 5-10 cm broad, pestle-shaped or rarely turbinate or pyriform, often sulcate from base to top of pseudostipe, overmature specimens cup-shaped or cylindrical. Exoperidium scurfy-furfuraceous, with fugacious composite spines, pale ochraceous to grey-brown. Endoperidium smooth, disappears in maturity. Gleba white, through yellow to chocolate-brown, powdery. Pseudodiaphragm indistinct or lacking. Subgleba firm and long lasting. Spore deposit brown.
Basidiospores 4.5-5.5 µm diam. (6-7.5 µm with ornament), globose, verrucose, often with short sterigmal remnants, mounts often mixed with remnants of sterigmata. Capillitium fragile, sparsely branched, 2-5(-10) µm broad, yellowish brown, pores small, slit-like. Exoperidium with fascicles of inflated cells. Endoperidium of dextrinoid, thickwalled hyphae.
Habitat: on humus, tolerates many soil types; mostly in woodland and plantations but also occasionally in grassland.
Distribution and frequency: widespread and common; occurs throughout most northern temperate regions with extensions to subarctic and subtropical climates.

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