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Page number:124 
Remarks (internal):Kreisel (1989) recognized two varieties besides the type variety. Only the type variety occurs in western Europe. Lange (1990) considered the smooth spores, presence of pseudodiaphragm and the very broad, rarely septate capillitium as characters that could lead to a separation of H. (as Calvatia) utriformis at the generic level. 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Handkea utriformis (Bull.: Pers.) Kreisel in Nova Hedw. 48: 288 (1989). Lycoperdon utriforme Bull., Champ. Fr.: 153 (1791).
Lycoperdon utriforme Bull.: Pers., Synops. Meth. Fung.: 143 (1801).
Calvatia utriformis (Bull.: Pers.) Jaap in Verhandl. Bot. Ver. Prov., Brandenb. 59: 37 (1918). Lycoperdon caelatum Bull., Champ. Fr.: 156 (1791).
Calvatia caelata (Bull.) Morgan in .1. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist. 12: 169 (1890). Lycoperdon bovista Pers.: Pers., Synops. Meth. Fung.: 141 (1801) non L. bovista L. Lycoperdon sinclairii Berk. ex Massee in Roy. Microscop. Soc. London 1887: 716
Further synonyms: see Kreisel (1989).
Selected descriptions: Kreisel (1962: 165-168); Eckblad (1955: 35-36); Lange (1990: 543-545).
Selected illustrations: Marchand (1976: pl. 374); Dähncke & Dähncke (1979: 568); Michael & al. (1986: pl. 144); Moser & Jülich VII: I & 5 (typical); Ryman & HolmÀ¥sen (1984: 595); Phillips (1981: 246); Bon (1987: 305); Lange & Hora (1965: 217, as L. caelatum); Wakefield & Dennis (1981: pl. 110, f. 4).
Diagnostic characters: large size; as broad as high; scaly surface; smooth spores and broad capillitium.
Fruitbody 5-15 cm broad, more or less turbinate, often depressed, base typically deeply sulcate, later cup-shaped with exposed gleba and very leathery. Exoperidium whitish then ochraceous to grey-brown, divided in polygonal plates, furfuraceous and composite spinulose, spines up to 4 mm, clusters up to 6 mm broad. Endoperidium lost at maturity. Gleba white then yellow through olivaceous to rich brown, loose and powdery. Pseudodiaphragm present and well marked. Subgleba persistent and solid, coarsely chambered (alveolate-poroid). Spore deposit brown.
Basidiospores appearing smooth, 4-5 µm diam., globose to subglobose, `apiculus' very indistinct, no sterigma] remnants present in slides. Capillitium fragile, sparsely branched, swollen at branching points, 2-15 µm broad, predominantly broad, ends wavy, taper to 2 µm, false septa present but rare, brown in maturity, pores slit-like. Cells in outer exoperidium up to 50 x 30 µm, in chains. Endoperidial hyphae dextrinoid [not acc. to Kreisell and cyanophilous, of sub-parallel hyphae, 3-5 µm broad and non-septate.
Habitat: mostly unfertilized grasslands including dunes on acid to neutral soils (see Arnolds 1982).
Distribution and frequency: widely distributed and relatively common but rather local; widespread in the temperate zones, not extending into arctic-alpine climatic zones.

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