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Page number:184 
Remarks (internal):A beautiful species; the only clathroid species of Clathrus known in Europe, although 16 species of the genus are known worldwide, most of which are tropical. Dennis (1955) regarded C. ruber as alien to Britain since almost all records were from pleasure grounds or gardens. 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Clathrus ruber Mich.: Pers., Synops. Meth. Fung. 2: 241 (1801); Mich. Nov. Pl. Gen.: 214 (1729).
C. cancellatus Tourn. ex Fr., Syst. Mycol. 2: 288 (1823).
Selected descriptions: Dring (1980: 14); Marchand (1976: 162); Pegler (1990: 170); Rea (1922: 21)
Selected illustrations: Breitenbach & Kränzlin (1986: p1.524); Dennis, Reid & Spooner (1977: fig.4J); Gerhardt (1985: 213); Marchand (1976: p1.379); Massee (1889: p1.3/46); Michael, Hennig & Kreisel (1986: p1.140a); Ramsbottom (1958: pl.IX, 37b)
Diagnostic characteristics: receptacle lattice-like, red; spongy arms forming a mesh; receptacle remaining attached to volva.
Immature fruitbody sub-hypogeous becoming epigeous, 3-6 cm diam., subglobose, apically rupturing into irregular lobes, containing an unexpanded receptacle attached to the peridium by white sutures and embedded in a pale yellowish, mucilaginous endoperidium; attached by a thick, basal mycelial cord. Peridium off-white to greyish ochre, with a grooved reticulum over the surface; gelatinous endoperidium up to 3 mm thick. Receptacle fragile, sessile, 10-12 cm high, 7-9 cm diam., salmon-pink to scarlet-red, paler towards the base, expanding to a hollow, lattice-like sphere of anastomosing arms, forming large polygonal meshes (c. 30), more elongated towards the base; arms about 1.5 cm thick, triangular in section, spongy with a large central tube and several smaller lateral tubes, with flattened but rugulose outer surface; remaining attached to remnants of basal peridial volva. Gleba olivaceous yellow drying to black, mucilaginous, at first covering the inner surfaces of the receptacle, finally reduced to small, scattered areas. Odour very foetid.
Basidiospores 4-6 x 1.5-3.2 µm, ellipso-cylindrical, hyaline to pale greenish yellow, smooth, thin-walled. Basidia 6-spored.
Habitat: solitary or in small groups, at edge of woodland and in parkland; amongst leaf-litter, under hedges, preferring warm localities.
Distribution: rare in Britain, restricted to southern England (south of line Wash to Dyfed), apart from Dublin and three records in southern Scotland. Bromfield (1843) cited the first British records from several localities on the Isle of Wight. Native to Mediterranean regions, extending into central and northern Europe.

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