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 Add this item to the list   Hydnangiaceae Gäumann & Dodge,
Page number:139 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Hydnangiaceae Gäumann & Dodge,
Comp. Morph. Fung.: 485 (1928).
Basidiome gasteroid, small, globose, turbinate or irregular. Peridium very thin, adhering to the gleba, detersile or evanescent. Gleba not gelatinized, loculate; chambers irregular or indistinctly radially arranged, pale reddish or ochraceous. Tramal plates thin, of thin-walled hyphae. Columella either absent or present and partially to totally percurrent.; sterile base either poorly developed to absent or forming a short but well developed stipe. Hyphal system monomitic; generative hyphae thin-walled, with clamp-connexions. Spore mass white. Basidiospores statismosporic, orthotropic, globose or nearly so, hyaline to stramineous, with eusporial ornamentation of pointed, conical, isolated spines, reduced to verrucae at the spore-base; hilar appendix subcylindric with a broad, terminal hilar pore, at times retaining a collapsed appendage. Basidia clavate, elongating at maturity, bi- or tetrasporic, sometimes monosporic. Cystidia absent. Subhymenial layer well developed, pseudoparenchymatous. Peridiopellis a thin epicutis of repent, appressed hyphae. Development angiocarpic to hemiangiocarpic. Hypogeous or epigeous. Type genus: Hydnangium Wallroth. Other genus: Podohydnangium Beaton, Pegler & Young.
Although formerly included with the gasteroid Russulales, the presence of clamp-connexions, the monomitic hyphal system of the context, and the absence of any amyloid myxosporium, are sufficient reasons to separate Hydnangiaceae, and to recognise a much closer relationship with the agaricoid genus Laccaria Berk. & Br. in Tricholomataceae. The unique spore structure found in Hydnangium, Podohydnangium and Laccaria further supports the relationship, and this viewpoint was emphasized by Pegler & Young (1979) and Demoulin & Marriott (1981). Kühner (1980) went so far as to transfer Laccaria from Tricholomataceae to Hydnangiaceae, whilst Beaton, Pegler & Young (1984) preferred to recognize the ballistosporic structure of Laccaria
as indicative of a position within the Agaricales and to maintain the statismosporic family, Hydnangiaceae. On the other hand, the Laccaria basidiospore structure is not encountered elsewhere in Tricholomataceae, and Jiilich (1982) proposed a monotypic family, Laccariaceae, for the agaricoid genus.
In many series linking truly gasteroid basidiomes to truly agaricoid basidiomes, intermediate genera are encountered. Beaton, Pegler & Young (1984) described the genus Podohydnangium from Victoria State, Australia for the species P. australe Beaton, Pegler & Young, which has a statismosporic structure, a partially exposed basal gleba, and a stipe-columella.
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