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Page number:158 
Remarks (internal):A specimen collected from Siberia on Abies was once identified as Polyporus melanopus by Burt (1931). Pilát (1934) identified one such specimen from Siberia as a new taxon, Polyporellus varius f. melanopodiformis; later he (Pilát 1937) treated the same specimen as Polyporellus picipes (Fr.) P. Karst. f. melanopodiformis. Kotlaba and Pouzar (1989) restudied its type and referred it to Polyporus badius (Pers.) Schwein. Bondartsev (1953) and Bondartsev and Lyubarsky (1964) reported that P. badius f. melanopodiformis grows on Abies and Pinus in the Russian Far East.
I re-examined the type off. melanopodiformis, and studied specimens from NEChina and the Russian Far East. All these belong to the same species, and they are identical with the European Polyporus tubaeformis (I could not get the specimens identifled by Burt and Bondartsev and Lyubarsky, but they evidently also represent this species).
In N Europe Polyporus tubaeformis mostly grows on wood of angiosperms, such as Alnus, Betula, Salix, Corylus, Populus, Sorbus and Rubus etc. (Niemelä & Kotiranta 1991). The collections from Changbai Mts. come from Abies, Pinus and some unidentified gymnosperms, and three specimens from the Far East of Russia derived fromAbies, Picea and Taxus. So P. tubaeformis can occur on several genera of gymnosperms which is exceptional in the genus. It seems to be not rare in NE Asia. The materiaI from NE Asia agrees very well with that from N Europe: hyphal structure is identical, pores are similar (6-9 per mm vs. 5-8 per mm in Dai 134 & Niemelä, Haikonen 207, Karsten 1945, Kytövuori 79264, Niemelä and Salo 118, n = 150/5), and spores are similar (6-7.8 x 2.2-3.2 µm vs. 6.5-8 x L = 7.26 µm, W = 3.02 µm, Q = 2.17-2.60 in Dai 134 &Niemelä, Karsten 1945, Kytövuori 79264 and Salo 118, n = 120/4). The type of P. tubaeformis has a littIe larger pores and wider spores (5-7 per mm and 7-8x 3-4 pm, L=7.30 pm, W = 3.37 µm, Q = 2.17, n = 30/1), but the difference is not significant.
Polyporus tubaeformis was recently reported from Japan (Nuñez & Ryvarden 1995). In Japan it mostly lives on angiosperms, but one colIection was made on Abies. Spores in the Japanese materiaI are a Iittle bigger (7-9 x 3-3.5 µm). The mating test revealed that the isolates from Japan and Norway are compatible (Nuñez & Ryvarden I995). Because P. tubaeformis is widely distributed in Honshu of Japan and lately it was found in E China (Hattori & Zang 1995), it is not only boreal but extends also to the temperate zone.
Polyporus varius Fr. is a common species in the Changbai Mts. area and the Russian Far East (Lyubarsky & VasiIyeva 1975). In old specimens its upper surface is sometimes brownish to pale bay, and in that respect it is similar to P. tubaeformis. However, it usually has strongly decurrent pores and only the foot of the stipe is bIack.
Polyporus hemicapnodes Berk. & Broome, a predominantly tropical element, was found in the Russian Far East by Parmasto (1984), and it occurs in N China as well. It has a black stipe and eIegantIy circular to flabelliform caps, but its upper surface is pale luteous to pale leather-coloured at centre and its pores are strongly decurrent along the stipe. It has subellipsoid spores (7-9 x 3.5-4.5 pm, n = 72/5, specimens listed below), which is a critical character in comparison with P. tubaeformis. Nuñez & Ryvarden (1995, 1996) regarded P. hemicapnodes to be a synonym of P. leprieurii Mont., but gave no detaiIs to the decision.
Polyporus aämirabilis Peck bears a black stipe and occurs in Changbai Mts., too. Robust basidiocarps, cream-coloured upper surface, larger pores (3-4 per mm) and lacerate to dentate dissepiments make it differ from P. tubaeformis. Polyporus subadmirabilis Bondartsev was described from the Russian Far East. I could not examine its type. It has a little bigger spores (8-10 x 3.5-5 µm, Bondartsev 1962), but otherwise it is very close to the collection of P. admirabilis from Changbai Mts. Nuñez (1994) also pointed out the close relationship of P. subadmirabilis and P. admirabilis. Polyporus chozeniae
(Vassilkov) Parmasto was described from Magadan of Russia. It is somehow similar to P. admirabilis, but grows on Salicaceae, especially on Chosenia (Salix); its dissepiments are entire (not lacerate as P. adimirabilis), and its spores are bigger (10-12.5 x 3.7-5 µm, Parmasto 1975). Nunez and Ryvarden (1996) considered P. chozeniae as a synonym of P. varius. I have studied one specimen of P. chozeniae from the Lake Baikal, which has large pores (2-3 per mm). In my opinion it should be regarded as an independent species rather than a variety of P. varius.
Polyporus xinjiangensis J. D. Zhao & X.Q. Zhang was reported from NW China (Zhao & Zhang 198I). It is separated from P. tubaeformis by its a Iateral or eccentric and robust stipe (7-15 mm in diam vs. up to 5 mm in diam in P. tubaeformis), and larger pores (3-4 per mm).
In the Melanopus group, besides Polyporus melanopus and P. badius, the following species have a black stipe, and more or less brownish to black upper surface: P. austroafricanus Nuñez & Ryvarden, P. blanchettianus, P. diabolicus Berk., P. dictyopus, P. doidgeae Wakef., P. guianensis Mont., P. infernalis Berk., P. leprieurii, P. nigrocristatus E. Horak & Ryvarden, P. virgatus Berk. & M. A. Curtis and P. xerophyllus Berk. All the above species are tropical in their distributions, and I have not studied specimens of them. The following discussion is based on literature.
Polyporus austroafricanus was recently described from E Africa (Nunez & Ryvarden 1994). It differs from P. tubaeformis by having larger pores (I-2 per mm), thicker stipe (up to 15 mm in diam), and bigger spores (10-12x 3-5 µm).
Polyporus blanchettianus, P. diabolicus, P. dictyopus, P. doidgeae, P. infernalis and P. xerophyllus belong to the P. dictyopus group. They have more or less eIlipsoid spores and swollen whip-like binding hyphae (Ryvarden & Johansen 1980). On the other hand, spores are distinctly cylindrical, and binding hyphae are not inflated in P. tubaeformis. Moreover, P. blanchettianus has a lateral stipe, and shorter spores (5-6.2 x 2-2.5 pm, Ryvarden & Johansen 1980). Polyporus diabolicus and P. dictyopus have lateral stipe, crenate to toothed margin, decurrent pores, and lacerate dissepiments (Cunningham 1965, Ryvarden & Johansen 1980). The mating test study by Nunez & Ryvarden (1995) proved that P. dictyopus is incompatibIe with P. tubaeformis. Polyporus doidgeae has larger pores and smalIer spores (3-4 per mm, 4-5.5 x 2.5-3.5 µm respectively, Ryvarden & Johansen 1980). P. infernalis is very close to P. xerophyllus, and Ryvarden (1977) mentioned that the Iatter is probably a small faun of the former. These two spe cies have strongly crenate margin, and lateral, rudimentary stipe. Recently Nunez and Ryvarden (1996) transfer Polyporus doidgeae to Microporellus Murrill, and treat P. blanchettianus, P. diabolicus, P. infernalis and P. xerophyllus as synonym of P. dictyopus.
Polyporus guianensis and P. leprieurii are close relatives (Corner 1984, Ryvarden & Jobansen 1980, Nuñez and Ryvarden 1996). They are readily separated from P. tubaeformis by their subellipsoid spores.
Polyporus nigrocristatus E. Horak & Ryvarden resembles P. tubaeformis by its pores and spores (7-8 per mm and 6-7 x 2.5-3 µm respectively, Horak & Ryvarden 1984), but it is characterized by a greyish upper surface bearing black radially arranged crests.
Polyporus virgatus is a pantropical to subtropical species, and its range reaches S China, too. Its spores are much larger (9-12.5 x 4-5 µm, Ryvarden & Johansen 1980) than the spores of other taxa in this complex.
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Polyporus tubaeformis (P. Karst.) Ryvarden & Gilb. (Figs. 3-4)
Polyporellus varius (Fr.) P. Karst. subsp. tubaeformis P. Karst., Medd. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fennica 9:69. 1882. - Holotype: Finland, Etelä-Häme, Tammela, Mustiala, 18.V11.1880 Karsten 1945 (H, studied).
Polyporellus varius f. melanopodiformis Pilát, Bull. Soc. Mycol. France 49:257. 1934 (1933). - Holotype: Russia. Siberia, Omsk Reg., Tara Distr., on Abies, 1928 Murashkinsky (PRM 163609, studied). -Polyporellus picipes (Fr.) P. Karst. f. melanopodiformis Pilát, Beih. Bot. Centralblatt 56 (B):65. 1937 (1936). - Holotype: PRM 163609 (see above).
Basidiocarps annual, centrally stipitate, solitary or clustered, when fresh coriaceous, and becoming hard upon drying. Pilei circular to infundibuliform, up to 7 cm wide, and thin (not exceeding 3 mm); margin sharp, below sterile. Upper surface reddish brown to deep bay, glabrous, having a cuticle, bearing indistinctly concentric zones when fresh, and azonate to more or less radially wrinkled upon drying. Pore surface cream, when dry straw-coloured to pale brownish, shining; pores round, a little decurrent, 6-9(-10) per mm (n = 150/5); dissepiments thin to fairly thick, entire. Section: context cream, hard corky, up to 2 mm thick; tube layer concolorous with poroid surface, tubes hard and brittle, up to 1 mm long. Stipe bearing a black cuticle, glabrous, slender, up to 3 cm long and 5 mm in diam.
Hyphal system dimitic, generative hyphae with clamp connections, thin-walled, hyaline; skeleto-binding hyphae thick-walled, with dendritic branching and branches tapering, unchanged in KOH.
Context. - Hyphae strongly interwoven; generative hyphae infrequent in mature fruit bodies, (2-)2.5-4(-4.5) µm in diam (n = 32/1); skeleto-binding hyphae thick-walled to almost solid, dominant, CB+, IKI-, (2.5-)2.7-4(-4.5) µm in diam (n = 60/2). Upper surface cuticle dark brown, (18-)20-30(-35) pm thick (n = 30/l), hyphae in cuticle thick-walled, brown-coloured and arranged into a palisade, CB- or weakly CB+, IKI-, 3-5(-6) µm in diam (n = 30/1).
Stipe. - Hyphal structure similar to those in context; generative hyphae frequently branched, (1.5-)2.1-3(-3.2) µm in diam (n = 30/1); skeletal hyphae thick-walled, CB+, IKI-, 3-4 µm in diam (n = 30/1); binding hyphae (i.e., binding sections of the skeleto-binding hyphae) abundant. Cuticle layer dark brown, (40-)45-70 µm thick (n = 30/1), hyphae in cuticle pale brown, thick-walled, with a wide lumen, CB-, IKI-, 5-6(-7) µm in diam (n = 30/1).
Tubes. -Tramal hyphae moderately gelatinized, interwoven with more or less a vertical orientation; generative hyphae usually present near to hymenium, (2-)2.2-3.2(-3.5) µm in diam (n = 30/I); skeleto-binding hyphae dominant, thick-walled to subsolid, moderately branched, 3-4.5(-5) pm in diam (n = 60/2). Hyphae at dissepiment edges a little swollen. Cystidia absent, cystidioles scanty to frequent, subulate. Basidia clavate, with a basal clamp and four sterigmata, 11-13 x 5-7 µm (n = 30/l). Basidioles slightly smaller, otherwise similar in shape.
Basidiospores cylindrical, thin walled, hyaline, smooth, bearing one guttule, CB-, IKI-, (5.8-)6-7.8(-8.2) x (2.1-)2.3-3.2(-3.5) µm, L = 6.49 µm, W = 2.75 pm, Q = 2.27-2.50 (n = 150/5).

 
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