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Page number:249 
Remarks (public):Together with Laetiporus sulphureus this species is the main cause for the inner decay of large oak trees, making them hollow in the end. The species seems to need a long period of decay before basidiocarps are produced and thus, they are invariably seen only on large and old oak trees.
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Fistulina hepatica (Schaeff.:Fr.) With. - Bot. Arrang. Br. Plants 2:405. 1792. - Fistulina hepatica (Schaeff.:Fr.) Fr. Syst. Mycol. 1:396, 1821.
Basidiocarps annual. sessile or laterally stipitate. single or several from a branched base or stipe; pileus dimidiate to reniform or subcircular. up to 20 cm in diarn and 6 cm thick. at first soft and fleshy and readily exuding a reddish blood-like sap when squeezed or bruised, eventually more fibrous and tough in older specimens; pileus surface pinkish brown to more reddish or purplish brown. finely hispid to scurfy with hyphae aggregating in crowded papillate tufts, these wearing away to expose a relatively smooth, slimy, reddish to pale purplish brown cuticle with minute darker scales or radial striations; margin rounded to rather acute, concolorous; pore surface white at first, bruising darker on handling and becoming dull brown with age and drying. the individual tubes
crowded, about 4-6 per mm; context reddish, fleshy and juicy when fresh, with a blood-like exudate where cut or broken, mottled or irregularly zonate with alternating pale and darker areas, in older specimens or on drying becoming soft-fibrous, pale wood-brown, up to 5 cm thick; tube layer consisting of individual, crowded but easily separable tubes, white to pale buff, bruising dark reddish-brown. drying pale brown. up to 1 cm thick; stipe lateral, scurfy with papillate tufts, these merging with tubes on the decurrent tube layer. reddish at first, darkening to blackish-brown on the basal portion, up to 5 cm long and 3 cm wide or on some sub-sessile specimens simply a broad. tapering base up to 8 cm wide.
Hyphal system monomitic; contextual generative hyphae thin-walled. with simple septa and clamps, rarely branched, mostly 4-10 µm in diam. but with inflated portions up to 20 µm in diam; gloeoplerous hyphae also present in context; tramal hyphae hyaline. thin-walled, agglutinated and difficult to separate in sections from dried specimens, with rare branching, with abundant clamps. 2-5 µm in diam.
Cystidia absent from hymenium. but cylindrical. thin-walled cystidial elements present in dissepiment edges, 6-7 µm in diam and up to 75 µm long.
Basidia clavate, 4-sterigmate, 15-20 x 5-6 µm.
Basidiospores ovoid to tear-shaped, hyaline. smooth, negative in Melzer's reagent. 3.54.5 x 2.5-3 µm.
Type of rot. Brown rot of living and dead hardwoods.
Cultural characteristics. See Cartwright and Findlay 1958; Cerny 1982. Sexuality. Unknown.
Substrata. In North Europe almost exclusively on living Quercus. in Central and South Europe also common on Castanea, very rarely on Acer. Alnus, Betula. Corylus. Fagus and Tilia. In North America also reported on other hardwood genera.
Distribution. Following the oak to southern Scandinavia. Circumglobal in temperate hardwood forest ecosystems and in the mountains of the Indian subtropics.
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