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Page number:328 
Description type:Culture description 
Description:Fistulina hepatica Schaeff.: Fr., Syst. Mycol. 1: 396, 1821.
Fruitbody descriptions in Wright (1961) and Wright & Deschamps (1975).
Macroscopic characters: Mats subfelty or slightly felty throughout the dish, always scarce (Fig. 7A); margin regular or irregular and arachnoid; growing very slowly, 5-7 cm by 6 wk. Reverse unchanged. Odor absent or slightly fruity. Oxidase reactions: GAA: -, tr-30 mm; TAA: -, tr-35 mm; TyA: -, tr. Microscopic characters: Mycelial mat primarily composed of clamped generative hyphae, 4-5 µm diam., with hyaline, thin to slightly thickened walls (Fig. 1A), many hyphae devoid of cytoplasm, eventually forming ampuliform clamps (Fig. 1C). Gloeoplerous hyphae rarely present, 4-6 µm diam. Chlamydospores claviform, cylindric, ellipsoid or rectangular, 7-40 x 4-6 µm, with thickened walls and filled with small guttulae (Fig. 1B); rarely globose or subglobose, up to 15 µm diam., with much thickened walls (Fig. 1D).
Species code: 1.3c.
Remarks: Fistulina hepatica produces fruitbodies with different context colors in the Nothofagus forests of Argentina. They are deep chestnut-red when growing on N. antarctica and N. dombeyi, flesh-colored when growing on N. pumilio and yellow when growing on N. alpina. Spegazzini (1887, 1921) described as new species on N. antarctica, Fistulina antarctica from Staten Island in Tierra del Fuego, and F. endoxhanta from Punta Arenas in Chile. Wright (1961), Wright & Deschamps (1972) and Rajchenberg & Wright (1987) treated Spegazzini's new species as varieties of F. hepatica, but Singer (1969) emphasized they were different taxa, though he did not present supporting data. In our four years collecting in the Nothofagus forests (though north from the Magellanic area) we found only F. hepatica growing on N. antarctica. We never found Spegazzini's species in our trips. The fruitbodies of F. hepatica found on N. antarctica were similar in shape, color and microscopic features to those growing on N. dombeyi, and both are similar to fruitbodies found in the northern hemisphere. The materials collected for this study grew on different substrates and in spite of differences in context color, their microscopic features were similar. Basidiospores did not germinate on standard medium (MEA) under lab conditions. As a result, compatibility tests could not be performed and the cultural features did not show differences between the forms.
Cultures of Fistulina hepatica are readily identified through the slow growth of the mat and the production of characteristic elongated chlamydospores. The species is associated with a brown rot in the substrate. In N. pumilio, F. hepatica never produces a well developed rot but instead develops a general reddish coloration of the heartwood. This coloration dissappears upon drying the timber.
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