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Literature:
 
Page number:235 
Remarks (internal):The comparative investigations of G. australe from Florida and Taiwan revealed that both collections were identical despite the cultures of Florida isolate lacked the Bovista-type binding hyphae and rather slow growth rate (3.5 mm/day) at its optimum growth temperature, 32C.
The spore size is one of the most important criteria for taxonomic work on fungi. The basidiospores of G. australe given by Ryvarden and Johansen (1980) were 6-13 x 4.5-9 µm, by Petersen (1987; G. adspersum, a synonym of G. australe) were 8.5-12 x 6-8 µm, by Ryvarden and Gilberson (1993) were 8.5-10(-12) x 5-7.5 µm, and by Leonard (1998) were (7-) 8.0-13.0 x 5.5-8.5 µm. The spore measurements of G. australe from Florida were 8.8-9.5 x 5.5-6.8 µm and these fit the species concept of G. australe (Fr.) Pat.
Based on published molecular research data by Yeh et al.(1995) and Chang et al.(1996), the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and DNA sequencing molecular approaches were applied to assess genetic problems. By using conserved primers complementary to rRNA genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a 2.16-kb A fragment containing 17S rRNA gene and a 1.85kb B fragment containing 5' half of 25S rRNA gene were efficiently amplified from ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats of these fungi. Electrophoresis of HhaI, Avail or Hinfl digested PCR products produced restriction phenotypes (fingerprints). The two intersterility groups of G. australe in Taiwan can be differentiated by Avail and Hinfl restriction phenotypes. In addition, minor sequence heterogeneity of rDNA repeats within G. australe FL-01 isolate was observed. Detail mapping of restriction sites within rDNA locus by partial digestion and Southern hybridization reveals conserved and variable restriction sites for each species or group. The DNA fragments containing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were also amplified. The PCR-amplified products were subcloned into pGEM-T and sequenced. Phylogenetic structures were constructed from analyses of restriction sites and ITS regions by PAUP program. The data suggest that Florida isolate FL-01 is very closely related to the Group 1 of G. australe in Taiwan. According to genetic distance and phylogeny reconstruction, isolate FL-01 falls in the Group 1 but not the Group 2 of G. australe in Taiwan (figs. 8 and 9). This means both isolates belong to the same " intersterility group" of G. australe.
This is the first report of distribution of G. australe in the United States of America.
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Ganoderma australe (Fr.) Pat. Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 5:67, 1889. -Polyporus australis Fr., Elench. Fung. p. 108, 1828. -Polyporus tornatus Pers. in Freyc., Voy. aut. Monde, Bot. p. 173, 1827. - Ganoderma tornatum (Pers.) Bres., Hedwigia 53:55, 1912.
The basidiocap was found on living stand of Coccoloba diversifolia Jacq., near Matheson Hammock Park, Miami, Florida. (collection No. Yeh, FL-01, date: Aug. 5, 1991).
Basidiocarp (fig. 1) perenial, sessile, dimidiate, somewhat ungulate, up to 17 x 12 x 5 cm; pileus dark brown; hard when dry, zoned with concentric sulcate rings, somewhat cracking when dry, crust 0.9 mm thick; contex dark brown, 4 mm thick; tube layer with lighter color than context, sharply differentiated from the context, without distinct separating context zones between each tube layer, tubes whitish within, up to 2.5 cm thick; pores (fig. 2 )5-6 per mm, pore surface whitish gray to light brown. Basidiospores (fig. 3 ) ovoid, with a rounded or truncate apex, pale brown in KOH, 5.5-6.8 x 8.8-9.5 µm. The hyphal system is trimitic with clamped generative hyphae and skeleto-binding hyphae (fig. 4 ).
Discussion
 
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