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Page number:755 
Remarks (public):The distributions of C. pyxidata and C. piperata apparently do not overlap. In fact, almost all branched Clavicorona basidiocarps from east of the Ricky Mountains have narrower spores than western collections. All specimens examined from Europe also have narrow spores, an important taxonomic character of C. pyxidata. Two collections (TENN-Petersen 321 and CUP-Atkinson 10700) from the eastern United States have broader spores. Notes on the TENN collection from Virginia included the following information : fruit body small, "white," not cartilaginous; spores 4.0-4.2 x 3.0-3.3 µm, minutely asperulous, amyloid; basidia 4.0 x 25-28 µm narrowly clavate, (2-)4-sterigmate; gloeocystidia cylindrical, ventricose, mucronoid; leptocystidia usual. This cannot be C. piperata because the spores are only minutely asperulous and the fruit body white. On the other hand, the specimen cannot be C. turgida because its basidia are too long, the gloeocystidia of a different shape, the hymenium not gelatinous and the spores only minutely asperulous. I consider the specimen a variant of C. pyxidata. The North Carolina collection (CUP-Atkinson 10500), however, had the following characters : fruit bodies "pallid when fresh," somewhat cartilaginous when dry; tips of most branches dichotomous and acicular; subhymenium gelatinous; basidia 12-16 x 3.5 µm, broadly clavate, nearly cylindrical, clamped; gloeocystidia cylindrical, up to 10 µm wide; leptocystidia usual; spores 3.5-4.0(-4.2) x 3.0-3.5(-4.0) µm, subglobose, asperulous, amyloid. The combination of characters is like that of the South and Central American species Clavicorona turgida, under which I have annotated the specimen. This is a new North American record.
Variation in basidiocarp color and branching has led to taxonomic confusion concerning Clavicorona pyxidata in North America. Reports of this species in Europe consistently gave the color as more or less light brown to brownish orange (ISCC). Persoon (1797) described Clavaria pyxidata as "sordide albidus" at first, later becoming "pallescente-fuligineus," "rufescit" when dry; Quelet (1888) reported the color as "blanc creme, puffs chamois"; Ricken (1920) noted Ramaria pyxidata to be "blass" when young, later "ledergelb." Perhaps because this fungus is relatively rare in Europe, light yellow (ISCC) young specimens, like those occurring in America, have not been reported there. The yellow color of only some young specimens and probably the absence of reports of this color from European specimens have caused the description of additional American species.
Schweinitz (1832) did not suggest how his new species, Clavaria coronata, differed from Clavaria pyxidata. He included in his description a similar color, "pallido-cervino," but mentioned branching from the base. Morgan (1888), however, mentioned "pale yellow" young specimens to distinguish Clavaria coronata from Clavaria pyxidata. Also, he said that C. coronata basidiocarps branch from the base, using this to support the separation.
Clavaria petersii Berkeley (1873) was described from an exsiccata specimen (K-Ravenel, Fung. Car. 5: 33, 4576 bis) as being rufous, branching from the very base and having apiculate tips. Burt's (1922) key separated the species as follows : C. pyxidata-3-10 cm high, pallid, then alutaceous, somewhat reddish, and apices with terminal cups; C. petersii-up to 5 cm high, lacking terminl cups and spores 4 x 22.5 p; C. coronata-pale yellow, then fawn color, "final branchlets .. . encircled with crown of minute processes," spores 3-6 x 2-3 µm. Burt's discussion of these species, however, contradicted the key differences. Of C. coronata, he said "... careful examination failed to show cup-shaped apices of branches, by which this species is distinguishable from C. petersii," not C. coronata distinguishable from C. pyxidata as in his key. Likewise the difference in spore size, so important in his key, was doubtful because he stated in his discussion of C. coronata, ".. . spores ... 3-6 x 2-3, usually 4 x 2.5-3 µm." The latter measurement is very close to that of spores of C. pyxidata, which Burt considered to be 3-3.5 x 2-2.5 µm.
Coker (1923) considered Clavaria coronata, C. petersii and C. pyxidata synonymous. He included the yellow color, cespitose habit and occasional lack of terminal cups within his concept of C. pyxidata.
Kauffman (1928) introduced new confusion when he described Clavaria piperata. He claimed that this species was separated from Clavaria pyxidata on basidiocarp color (darker), spore dimensions (broader), taste (peppery) and substrate (conifers). Coker (1947) saw no difference between C. piperata and C. pyxidata except in spore shape. He mentioned that his collections of C. pyxidata had a peppery taste but were all on deciduous logs and thought C. piperata could best be treated as a form or variety of C. pyxidata.
Doty (1944) first recognized Clavaria piperata, C. pyxidata and C. coronata as distinct taxa in Clavaria section Piperata. Clavaria pyxidata was not described in detail, but its key characters were color ("pallid to Baryta Yellow") and size (3-10 cm). Clavaria piperata was described as "pallid to cinnamon brown," 71 6 cm tall with sub-globose spores and lanceolate cystidia. Clavaria coronata was described as "Cinnamon-Drab," branching only once, under 3 cm tall and with elliptical spores. Doty included Craterellus cristatus Kauffman in the synonymy of C. coronata, which accounts for his description of spores of C. coronata. Also, Doty claimed C. pyxidata was yellow whereas C. coronata was brownish, the reverse of colors ascribed to those species by Morgan (1888) and Burt (1922).
Later Doty (1947) separated Craterellus cristatus (as Clavicorona cristata) from Clavicorona coronata, recognizing simpler branching and, according to his key, narrower spores in C. cristata. But his discussion confused the issue concerning spore dimensions. In his key, Doty wrote, "spores mostly narrower than 2.4 ilk (Clavicorona coronata)." Yet in his discussion of C. cristata he stated : "Most of the spores found on the type were quite regularly between 2.5 and 2.7 by 6.5 µm." Further confusion was caused by his inclusion of Clavaria piperata in the synonymy of Clavicorona coronata Schw. He also syonymized Clavaria petersii and C. pyxidata (sensu Coker, in part) with Clavicorona coro-nata. Fruit body colors of Clavaria pyxidata were considered yellow to brown and of Clavicorona coronata vinaceous-buff to fawn color or even more brown. He admitted he never saw fresh material of Clavaria pyxidata.
Corner (1950) considered Clavaria coronata, C. petersii and Clavi-corona coronata sensu Doty synonyms of Clavicorona pyxidata. He recognized Clavicorona cristata (Kauffm.) Doty as a distinct species and Clavaria piperata as possibly synonymous with Clavicorona colensoi.
Leathers and Smith (1967) considered Clavicorona coronata (Schw.) Doty distinct from C. pyxidata because spores of type specimen of C. coronata were thought to be dextrinoid, whereas those of C. pyxidata were amyloid.
In summary, C. pyxidata, C. petersii and C. coronata have been confused because spore size and amyloidity, basidiocarp color, and branching pattern have been assigned in contradictory fashions.
Fruit bodies in the exsiccata distribution of Clavaria petersii, including the specimen (K-4576 bis) cited by Berkeley (1873), are typical C. pyxidata, exhibiting coronate tips and ovate-elongate, amyloid, minutely asperulous spores.
The type of Clavaria coronata (PH-Schweinitz 1041) has coronate cups at the tips and amyloid, minutely asperulous spores, 2.5 x 5.0 µm in size. This specimen is definitely Clavicorona pyxidata, the spores being quite amyloid, contrary to the report by Leathers and Smith (1967), and the branching not atypical for C. pyxidata. Branching and color are variable, often within a single collection, and must be used carefully in the taxonomy of this species. Clavicorona coronata (Schw.) Doty must be synonymized with C. pyxidata. However, Doty's concept of C. coronata is more like Clavicorona piperata.
Clavaria chondroides Berk. was thought by Coker (1923) to be synonymous with Clavaria pyxidata. The type (K-Hostmann s.n.) has nonamyloid spores, lacks gloeoplerous hyphae and is dichotomously branched. It is probably, as suggested by Corner (1950), a Clavulina.
Clavaria javanica Sacc. & Syd., considered by Coker (1923) as synonymous with Clavaria pyxidata, is clearly a separate species [see under C. turgida (Lev.) Corner] with broader spores, gelatinous hymenium and shorter basidia.
Clavaria laetissima Berk., considered by Corner (1950) as Clavicorona pyxidata, is Clavicorona turgida. The type specimen (K-Lockyer 477) has the cartilaginous appearance, gelatinous hymenium, broad, asperulous spores, short, clavate basidia and broad gloeocystidia typical of C. turgida.
Clavicorona pyxidata var. asperospora Fawc., from Australia, is synonymous with Clavicorona piperata. The type specimen (MEL-Fawcett 7125F) has broad, asperulous spores; long, narrowly clavate basidia; and a nongelatinous hymenium. The original description gives the color as Wood Brown to Avellaneous to Cinnamon Brown; young plants are brown, not yellow.
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Clavicorona pyxidata (Pers. per Fr.) Doty. Lloydia 10: 43, fig. 3. 1947.
Clavaria pyxidata Persoon. Neues Mag. Bot. 1: 117. 1794. Clavaria pyxidata Pers. per Fries. Syst. mycol. 1: 470. 1821.
Merisma pyxidatum (Pers. per Fr.) K. Sprengel. Caroli Linnaei Syst. veg., Ed. 16, 4(1) : 496. 1827. (n.v.).
Ramaria pyxidata (Pers. per Fr.) Quelet. Fl. mycol. France, 463. 1888.
= Clavaria petersii Berkeley. Grevillea 2: 7. 1873. ( !)
Clavaria coronata Schweinitz. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. n.s. 4: 182. 1832. ( !); non Clavaria coronata Zipp. in Lev. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Ser. 3 2: 215. 1844. (n.v.).
Clavicorona coronata (Schw.) Doty. Lloydia 10: 42, figs. 2, 6. (in part). 1947.
Illustrations.-Coker (1923); Pilat (1958).
Representative specimen.-Dodd 397 (TENN); Culture J.L.D. 40 (isolated from representative specimen).
Basidiocarps 2-8(-13) cm high, usually gregarious, often cespitose, completely light yellow (ISCC) (Baryta Yellow, Naples Yellow, Massicot Yellow, Picric Yellow, Pinard Yellow, Pale Orange-yellow) when young, fading with age to pale yellow (ISCC) (Cartridge Buff, Ivory Yellow, Cream Color) in upper branches, downwards light yellow-ish brown (ISCC) (Avellaneous, Cinnamon-Buff, Vinaceous-Cinnamon, Wood Brown) to moderate yellowish brown (ISCC) (Buffy Brown, Sayal Brown, Snuff Brown, Tawny-Olive), when very old becoming completely brownish, rarely whitish, single to cespitose, branching verticilliately in 2-5 ranks, primary branches 1-3 mm wide; secondary branches about 1 mm thick; apices coronate and cuspid; stipe slightly strigose with light brown (ISCC) to moderate brown (ISCC) hyphal fascicles; basal pad effuse, light brown (IS CC) to moderate brown (IS CC), strigose; texture pliable, somewhat tough; flesh white to pale yellow (ISCC), inamyloid; taste slowly becoming acrid; on rotten deciduous and conifer wood, most often moss-covered; May-October; North Temperate Zone-Europe and North America from Quebec to Alabama, west to Wasatch Range in Rocky Mountains.
Contextual tissue aerenchymatous; generative hyphae up to 16 µm wide, inflated, clamped, hyaline, thin- to slightly thick-walled (wall up to 0.5 µm thick); gloeoplerous hyphae 3-8 itt wide, septate (with clamp) at base, often culminating in hymenium as gloeocystidia, with refractive contents black in sulfobenzaldehyde. Subhymenial generative hyphae 1.6 1.0 µm wide, tightly interwoven, short-celled (10-50 µm), thin-walled, hyaline, clamped; gloeoplerous hyphae as above. Hymenium plus subhymenium 30-50 µm thick. Basidia (17-)20-28(-30) x 4.0 1.5(-50) µm, 2.0 µm wide at base, thin-walled, hyaline, clamped, (2-)4-sterigmate; sterigmata 3.5-4.5 µm long, slightly curved (Fig. 1a). Gloeocystidia (3-)4-6(-18) µm wide, projecting up to 15 µm beyond basidia, cylindrical,
mucronate or ventricose, usually arising from subhymenial or contextual gloeoplerous hyphae but occasionally from generative hyphae in subhymenium. Leptocystidia 3-5 µm wide, ventricose-rostrate, filamentous or occasionally dichotomously branched, hyaline, clamped at base, projecting up to 8 µm beyond basidia.
Spores (3.5-)4.0-5.0(-5.5) x 2.0-2.6(-3.0) µm, white in mass, amyloid, minutely asperulous, thin-walled; apiculus typical of genus (Fig. 1a).

 
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