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Page number:1435 
Remarks (internal):Neonothopanus gardneri is characterized by this combination of features: omphalotoid basidiomes with yellow to yellowish white pileus 10-90 mm diam, deeply decurrent, distant, broad lamellae, a well developed, eccentric to central stipe, and pale yellow context tissues; hyaline, inamyloid, smooth, globose basidiospores with mean 10.2 x 9.7 µm; elongate-fusoid to sinuous-cylindrical cheilocystidia; cutis-type pileipellis and stipitipellis tissues with inamyloid, non-gelatinized hyphae; growth on debris of dwarf palm; and basidiomes that are strongly luminescent. Our material undoubtedly represents the species first reported by Gardner (1840) from basidiomes growing on pindoba palm fronds in central Brazil. No micromorphological details were provided in the protolog, although a type study was published by Pegler (1988). Our material matches that analyzed by Pegler except in basidiospores size, which was reported by Pegler (1988) as 6-7 x 4.5-5.7 µm (x = 6.5 x 5.5 µm; Q = 1.18), much smaller than we report here. We studied the holotype specimen (K) and found basidiospores in the range that we report from fresh specimens (9.5-12 x 9-11 µm) and many collapsed basidiospores in the range reported by Pegler (1988).
Neonothopanus was established by Petersen and Krisai-Greilhuber (1999) as a monotypic genus based on Agaricus nambi Speg. described from Paraguay (Spegazzini 1883). Singer (1944) recognized A. nambi as a member of his new genus Nothopanus (type A. eugrammus Mont.). Horak (1968) revised the types of A. nambi and A. eugrammus, and Petersen and Krisai-Greilhuber (1999) also revised the type of A. eugrammus and studied representative materials of A. nambi. All authors considered that they were distinct species and that Nothopanus (with type A. eugrammus) represented a synonym of Pleurotus. For a complete discussion of the taxonomy and nomenclature of Nothopanus and Neonothopanus see Petersen and Krisai-Greilhuber (1999). Our Brazilian species shows morphological affinities to both Neonothopanus and Omphalotus (with syn. Lampteromyces). Both latter genera contain species that form luminescent basidiomes with decurrent, distant lamellae, eccentric, solid stipes, smooth, hyaline, inamyloid basidiospores, and non-gelatinized, inamyloid hyphae with clamp connections. Indeed the morphological features of Neonothopanus and Omphalotus are overlapping and the distinctions subtle, with Neonothopanus forming unpigmented or pale pigmented (white to grayish tan) marasmielloid to pleurotoid basidiomes and Omphalotus forming more brightly pigmented (yellow to orange) pleurotoid to clitocyboid basidiomes. Molecular data have informed our decision to accept A. gardneri in Neonothopanus rather than in Omphalotus.
Neonothopanus gardneri is moderately supported as the sister taxon to N. nambi in the maximum likelihood analysis of the combined ITS + nLSU datasets (Fig. 1), and these taxa did not form a monophyletic lineage with Omphalotus species in any analysis. Neonothopanus gardneri differs from N. nambi in basidiome stature, pigmentation and basidiospore size. Neonothopanus nambi forms white to pale grayish tan basidiomes with reduced, eccentric to lateral stipe and ellipsoid basidiospores, 4-6.5 x 2.8-4 µm (Petersen and Krisai-Greilhuber 1999), whereas N. gardneri forms yellow basidiomes with a well developed, eccentric to central stipe and globose basidiospores, 9.5-12 x 9-11 µm.
Neonothopanus nambi has not been explicitly reported as bioluminescent, but from the data provided by Petersen and Krisai-Greilhuber (1999) and Corner (1981) we infer this to be the case. Petersen and Krisai-Greilhuber convincingly documented that N. nambi is synonymous with Pleurotus eugrammus (Mont.) Dennis sensu Singer (1944), and they reported that specimens from Malaysia were conspecific (intercompatible) with those from Puerto Rico. Corner (1981) reported that Malaysian material of P. eugrammus (following Singer's concept of the species) was luminescent. Moreover we have collected luminescent basidiomes from Micronesia whose morphology and DNA sequences match those of N. nambi (Desjardin and Perry unpubl). Neonothopanus gardneri has been used recently in research that verifies the enzymatic nature of fungal bioluminescence (Oliveira and Stevani 2009) in contradiction to the research of Shimomura (1989, 1992) who reported that the pathway to light emission in fungi was non-enzymatic.
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Neonothopanus gardneri (Berk. ex Gardner) Capelari, Desjardin, Perry, Asai & Stevani, comb. nov. Figs. 2, 3
MycoBank MB519818
Basionym: Agaricus gardneri Berk. ex Gardner, J. Bot. (Hooker) 2:427 (1840).
Synonyms: Pleurotus gardneri (Berk. ex Gardner) Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 5:352 (1887).
Dendrosarcus gardneri (Berk. ex Gardner) Kuntze, Revis. gen. pl. (Leipzig) 3:464 (1898).
Pileus 10-90 mm diam, convex to applanate with a small umbo when young, applanate to depressed or infundibuliform when mature, smooth, glabrous, hygrophanous; margin irregular, sometimes lacerate or lobate, striatulate; yellow (N00A40M00) overall when young, the disk darker yellow (N00A50M00) and margin paler yellow (N00A30M00), sometimes fading on the margin to buff or nearly white, sometimes with small scattered brownish spots. Context fleshy, thick, cream to pale yellow (N00A40M00). Lamellae deeply decurrent, distant with 2-3(-5) series of lamellulae, broad (3-7 mm); edges entire, yellow, concolorous with pileus margin (N00A30M00), becoming paler with age. Stipe 30-50 x 8-15 mm, eccentric or sometimes central, cylindrical to narrowed toward the base, solid, tough, fibrous, smooth or reticulate near lamellae ends, light yellow, concolorous with the pileus surface (N00A30M00-N00A40M00) above, base darker with brown tones; partial veil absent. Flavor not recorded. Odor pleasant. Pileus and lamellae strongly luminescent (bright yellowish green; Fig. 2b, d); mycelium luminescent (Fig. 2f).
Basidiospores 9.5-12 x (8.5-)9-11 µm (x = 10.2 ± 0.7 x 9.7 ± 0.7 µm, Q = 1.00-1.18, Qm = 1.07 ± 0.02, n = 25 spores), globose to subglobose with a prominent hilar appendix, smooth, hyaline, inamyloid, thin-walled. Basidia 35-48 x 7.5-12 µm, subcylindrical to clavate, four sterigmata, occasionally two sterigmata, hyaline, thin-walled, clamped. Basidioles 35-50 x 7-12 µm, cylindrical to clavate, hyaline, thin-walled. Pleurocystidia absent. Lamella-edge heteromorphous, with basidia, basidioles and scattered cystidia. Cheilocystidia 30-50 x 4-8 µm, body submerged and difficult to discern, apices slightly projecting, elongate-fusoid to sinuous-cylindrical, hyaline, thin-walled. Pileipellis undifferentiated from the underlying tramal tissue, composed of repent hyphae, 2.5-5 µm diam, hyaline or pale yellowish in KOH, inamyloid, thin-walled, non-gelatinous. Pileus and stipe tramal tissues composed of hyphae 3.5-6.5 µm diam, cylindrical or sometimes inflated and branched, hyaline, inamyloid, thin- to slightly thick-walled, with clamp connections. Hymenophoral trama compact, with a subregular to irregular mediostratum and a more loosely arranged lateral stratum; hyphae 2.5-5 µm diam, hyaline, inamyloid, thin- to slightly thick-walled. Stipitipellis similar to pileipellis. Clamp connections present in all tissues.
Habit, habitat and known distribution: Growing at the base of palm trees (pindoba palm [Attalea humilis Mart. ex Spreng.], piaçava [A. funifera Mart. ex Spreng.], and babaçu [Orbignya phalerata Mart.]). Goiás, PiauÀ­ and Tocantins States, Brazil.
Specimens examined: Brazil. Goiás State: Vila de Natividade, Dec 1839, Gardner s.n. (holotype, K);
 
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