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 Add this item to the list   Bankera fuligineo-alba
Page number:24 
Remarks (internal):No fresh specimens were collected during this study. All specimens of dried material bore pine needles attached to the pileus surface and it may be assumed that the above species occurs co:monly under coniferous tree species.
This species was previously placed in the genus Phellodon (Banker, 1913; Coker and Beers, 1951) because the spores are echinulate and whitish in mass. The context of this Bankera species is brittle and homogeneous, however, not pliant or rubbery-fibrous as in Phellodon. As with many species of stipitate hydnums, B. fuligineo-alba is collected very rarely in the southern Appalachian Mountains. During this study, the author was unable to make even a single collection and all data in the above description are based on dried material.
A single collection of Bankera carnosa (Banker) Snell and Dick (as Phellodon) was reported by Coker and Beers (1951) from the southern Appalachians (NCU no. 12917: Jackson Co., North Carolina). The specimen could not be located, however, and its true identity remains uncertain.
Fries (1851) first described Hydnum fragile. After reviewing the original description and observing the accompanying plate, I am convinced that the species he described is, in actuality, Bankera fuligineo-alba. In the plate, the basidiocarp shape and colors are identical to the collections of B. fuligineo-alba observed from the southern Appalachian Mountains. Pine needles are shown to be attached to the pileus surface, which is also indicative of its position as Bankera fuligineo-alba.
Description type:General description 
Description:Bankera fuligineo-alba
Sporophore single to gregarious. Pileus up to 15.0 cm broad, convex to plane or depressed, matted from collapsed tomentum, often pitted, generally smooth except for adherent plant debris (usually pine needles), lobed or wavy, yellowish white (4A2), light brown (7D4-7D5) or salmon (6A4); context not duplex, azonate, yellowish white (4A2) to Sahara (6C5); taste none; odor none. Stipe up to 4.0 x 2.0 cm, central to eccentric, terete with a blunt base, subpubescent to glabrous or smooth, concolorous with the pileus, with a white zone just below the spines; context not duplex, azonate, brittle concolorous with pileus flesh. Spines up to 10.0 :m long, subdecurrent, crowded, white (4A1) to yellowish white (4A2). Chemical reactions: context tissue light olive to nonreactive in KOH or NH4OH. Pileus trama hyphae up to 12.0 :m diam, inflated, interwoven throughout the context, unclamped; gloeoplerous-like hyphae up to 8.0 :m diam. Stipe hyphae up to 11.0 :m diam, inflated, interwoven throughout the context, unclamped; gloeoplerous-like hyphae up to 9.0 :m diam. Spine trama hyphae up to 5.0 :m diam., uninflated, unclamped. Basidia 22.5-37.4 x 4.0-5.5 (6.0) :m (X= 27.53 " 3.52 x 5.10 " 0.46 :m), clavate, unclamped, 4-spored; sterigmata 3.0-5.0 :m long (X= 3.45 " 0.62 :m). Basidiospores 3.5-5.0 x 3.0-4.0 :m (X= 4.23 " 0.53 x 3.60 " 0.26 :m), subglobose, hyaline; ornamentation echinulate to verrucose, spinules not prominent; hilar appendage oblique. Terphenylquinones: Thelephoric acid.
Distribution: occurs in parts of southeastern United States (Coker and Beers, 1951) and in Europe (Maas Geesteranus, 1975).
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