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 Add this item to the list  Hydnellum geogenium (Fries) Banker.
Page number:51 
Remarks (internal):Because no fresh collections were made during this study, associated tree species cannot be included. Harrison (1968) and Maas Geesteranus (1975) reported that H. geogenium can be found under coniferous tree species and Grand (personal communications) stated that he found a collection of H. geogenium under Picea abies. Only three collections of this species were reported to have been found in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Two of these (NCSU Grand No. 1908; BPI Coll. Walters, s.n.) were from Highlands, North Carolina, and the other, not seen by this author, was collected in Rabun Co., Georgia (NCU No. 12559) .
Hydnellum geogenium can be easily identified by the sulfur-yellow color of the pileus margin and context. No other species of stipitate hydnums from this geographical range exhibits the sulfur-yellow color characteristic of H. geogenium.
Kalchbrenner (1865) did not designate a type specimen of the European-named species H. sulfureum. The original description, however, obviously pertains to H. geogenium. Banker (1913) examined a Kalchbrenner collection labelled as H. sulfureum and found it to be conspecific with H. geogenium. Maas Geesteranus (1960) also stated that he believed the species designated by Kalchbrenner was, in actuality, H. geogenium.
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Hydnellum geogenium (Fries) Banker.
Sporophore single to highly concrescent. Pileus up to 10.0 em broad (fused), plane to depressed, irregular, lobed, highly fused, forming imbricate pilei or pileoli, tomentose becoming matted or glabrous, radially rugose, pitted to scrobiculate at the disc, subzonate, pale yellow (2A3) to light yellow (2A5) or olive (2F4) ("Sulfur Yellow" to light "Greenish Yellow" or "Olive Brown"), blackish areas present; yellowish powder easily coming off onto the hands, context up to 2.0 mm thick, not duplex, azonate, hard or woody, pale yellow (2A3) to light yellow (2A5), olive (2F4) or grayish green (29D6) ("Sulfur Yellow" to "Light Greenish Yellow", "Olive Brown" or "Yellow Oil Green"); taste none; odor none. Stipe up to 2.0 x 0.4 cm, often lacking, central when present, terete to subattenuate below to a bulbous base, many attached to a continuous mycelial mat, tomentose below to glabrous above, concolorous with the pileus; context not duplex, azonate, concolorous with pileus flesh. Spines up to 3.0 mm long, strongly decurrent, crowded, pale yellow (2A3) to brown (6E5) with yellowish tips, often blackish ("Sulfur Yellow" to "Olive Brown"). Chemical reactions: context tissue olivaceous in KOH or NH4OH. Pileus trama hyphae up to 5.0 m diam, uninflated, interwoven in subsurface layer, parallel below, unclamped; gloeoplerous-like hyphae up to 5.0 :m diam. Stipe hyphae up to 5.0 :m diam, uninflated., interwoven in subsurface layer, parallel at the center, unclamped; gloeoplerous-like hyphae not seen. Spine trama hyphae up to 5.0 :m diam, uninflated, unclamped. Basidia (15.0) 20.0-30.0 x 4.0-5.0 :m (X= 24.45"3.32 x 4.93"0.41 :m), clavate, unclamped, 4-spored; sterigmata (2.8) 3.0-4.0 :m long (X= 3.21"0.43 :m). Basidiospores 4.0-5.0 x 3.5-4.0 m (X= 4.40"0.31 x 3.79"0.25 :m), subglobose, brownish; ornamentation tuberculate, not prominent, rounded; hilar appendage oblique, prominent.
Terphenylquinones: None identified.
Distribution: occurs in Europe (Maas Geesteranus, 1975) and eastern North America (Coker and Beers, 1951); specimens examined: North Carolina.
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