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Page number:97 
Remarks (internal):Because no fresh material was collected during this study, tree data is not included. Maas Geesteranus (1975) reported that, in Europe, this fungi could be found under coniferous trees, but they are reported to sporulate in deciduous woods in North America (Coker and Beers, 1951). Smith and Smith (1973) stated that Sarcodon imbricatus occurs throughout North America under both conifers and hardwoods.
Hydnum subsquamosum Batach:Fries is a name that has caused much confusion in the European and North American literature. European collections labelled under the name are actually specimens of S. imbricatus (Maas Geesteranus, 1956). Because of the confusion presented by H. subsquamosum and its relationship to S. imbricatus, two researchers reviewed the problem (Coker and Beers, 1951; Maas Geesteranus, 1956) and determined that the species concept of H. subsquamosum was unclear and the epithet should be considered a nomen ambiguum. Because the original description and accompanying plate by Batsch are unclear, I concur with this conclusion.
To determine whether the European S. imbricatus is the same species as the one found in the southern Appalachian Mountains, I examined the following collections of S. imbricatus from Europe: Eriksson and Mederis, Upland: Danmark sn, 1 Km NW. om Bergsbrunng jvstn, 17.V111.1948.; Lundell, Bland mossa i barrskog Upland: Borge an, Klista skog., 29.V111.1945. Nannfeldt No. 20153.; Meijer, Rijssen, prov. Overijsel, 2.X.1953. (all from UPS). Even though these collections were found under pine woods, they seem to be identical with the species sporulating under hardwoods in North America. Until mating studies are done with European and North American cultures of S. imbricatus, there will be uncertainty as to the conspecificity of the European and North American collections.
After a thorough search of BPI for Sarcodon adpressus Lloyd, I was unable to locate the type specimen for study. However, Lloyd=s black and white photograph of the basidiocarp is obviously an old specimen with the scales removed and a perforated disc, which are typical for over-mature sporophores of S. imbricatus.
Maas Geesteranus (1956) listed H. cervinum as a synonym of S. imbricatus. No type specimen can be found, however, and the original description does not clearly define the taxon. Therefore, it is considered as a nomen ambiguum.
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Sarcodon imbricatus (Linnaeus:Fries) Karsten
Sporophore single. Pileus up to 18.0 cm broad, convex to plane or depressed, becoming perforated at the disc, often lobed, conspicous imbricate scales, coarse and upright at the disc, later collapsing and disappearing causing a smooth surface, light brown (7D4), grayish brown (l0D3) to reddish brown (8E4) or dark brown (9F4) ("Cinnamon Brown", "Light Brown" to "Reddish Brown" or "Carob Brown"); context up to 1.5 cm thick, not duplex, azonate, spongy, white (10A1) or grayish brown (10D3) ("White" to "Light Brownish Drab"); taste none; odor none. Stipe up to 8.0 x 2.0 cm, central to eccentric, attenuate below to blunt or bulbous base, glabrous, except scabrous from abortive spines, filled, later becoming hollow, concolorous with pileus, white mycelium at the base; context not duplex, azonate, concolorous with pileus flesh. Spines up to 8.0 mm long, subdecurrent, crowded, reddish brown (8E4) with light tips to completely dark brown (9F4) ("Chestnut Brown" to "Carob Brown"). Chemical reactions: context tissue olivaceous to nonreactive in KOH or NH4OH. Pileus trama hyphae up to 34.0 µm diam, inflated, interwoven throughout the context, clamped; gloeoplerous-like hyphae up to 12.6 µm diam. Stipe hyphae up to 21.4 µm diam, inflated, interwoven throughout the context, gloeoplerous-like hyphae up to 11.0 µm diam. Spine trama hyphae up to 22.0 µm diam, inflated, clamped. Basidia (27.5) 30.0-42.0 x (5.5) 6.0-8.0 (9.0) µm (X= 34.81±3.33 x 7.51±0.96 µm), clavate, clamped, 4-spored; sterigmata 4.0-5.5 (6.0) µm long (X= 4.71±0.50 µm). Basidiospores (5.0) 6.0-8.0 (8.5) x (5.0) 5.5-6.5 (7.5) µm (X= 6.95±0.67 x 6.16±0.50 µm), subglobose, brownish; ornamentation tuberculate, prominent, flattened to exculpate; hilar appendage oblique.
Terphenylquinones: Thelephoric acid.
Distribution: occurs throughout North America (Smith and Smith, 1973) and in Europe (Maas Geesteranus, 1975); Alabama, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia.
 
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