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Page number:220 
Remarks (internal):The spore ornamentation made up of very crowded pyramidal echinulae, 1.0-1.5 µm wide at the base, the strictly globose spores, and the mono-bisporic basidia undoubtedly place Laccaria tortilis sensu Clémençon, Pázmány, and Kalamees & Vaasma within the L. tortilis-complex. As pointed out in the introduction, the new form and forma tortilis are readily differentiated based on spore size and ornamentation. Nonetheless, molecular studies (Fig. 1) show that they represent a single species with rather variable spore ornamentation. According to Mueller (1992), Laccaria tortilis var. gracilis Peck is synonym of L. ohiensis (Mont.) Singer. There is another small-sized bisporic Laccaria producing spores with equally crowded echinulae - L. pumila Fayod (= L. altaica Singer; but see Sivertsen 1993 and Vesterholt 2008) - but it is separated from L. tortilis by its ellipsoid spores with much shorter echinulae (usually 0.5-0.8(-1) µm long; Trimbach 1978, Bon 1983, Ballero & Contu 1989, Mueller 1992, Contu 2003) and ITS sequences (Fig. 1). Another smallsized species, L. nana Massee, differs in dark cinnamon colouration, a nonstriate pileus, and globose spores with echinulae measuring (2.3-)2.8-4 µm long and 1.8-2.3 µm wide at the base (Mueller 1992). In Laccaria, at least one infraspecific taxon has been described with spores bearing shorter spines than those of the type: Laccaria masoniae var. brevispinosa McNabb, from New Zealand, has echinulae 1.2-1.5 µm long, while the echinulae are 2-3.5 µm long in L. masoniae G. Stev. var. masoniae (McNabb 1972). These last two taxa, not known from Europe, clearly differ from L. tortilis in their violaceous tinged basidiomata. Infraspecific variants characterised by spore echinulae longer than those of the type have been described elsewhere, such as Laccaria macrocystidiata var. longispinosa Contu (Contu 2003). Therefore, we do not regard spore ornamentation as a good taxonomic marker, at least in some cases, to delimit species concepts in Laccaria. 
Description type:Original description 
Description:Laccaria tortilis f. clemenconii Contu, Vizzini, Kalamees & G. Moreno, f. nov.
MycoBank MB519740
“Laccaria tortilis” sensu Clémençon (1984: 7), Kalamees & Vaasma (1993: 126), Pázmány (1994: 8) non Laccaria tortilis (Bolton) Cooke, Grevillea 12: 70 (1884) [Mueller (1987: 306)]
Pileus 8-25 mm wide, not fleshy, convex, becoming plane to uplifted, often depressed at the centre, plicate-striate, margin often undulate-distorted, fulvous to salmon-pink or pale pink, fading buff, finely fibrillose. Lamellae distant, thick, very broad, sinuate to adnate, occasionally subdecurrent to decurrent, pink, white-pruinose in old basidiomata. Stipe 8-25 x 1-2(-3) mm, rather short, gracile, mostly equal, polished or slightly fibrillose-sericeous, concolorous with the pileus, basal mycelium white. Context very scarce, pink, darker towards the stipe base, unchanging. Smell indistinct to agreeable, at times fruity. Taste indistinct. Spore-print white. Spores 10-12(-15) x 10-12(-14.5) µm, mostly 11 x 11 µm, globose, hyaline, thick-walled, strongly echinulate, echinulae very crowded, pyramidal, (1-)1.5-2(-2.5) µm long, mostly 1.5 µm long, 1-1.5 µm wide at the base, apex acute (Fig. 2a-f). Basidia 45-60 x 9-12 µm, clavate, stout, mostly monosporic or bisporic, rarely intermixed with scarce tri- or tetrasporic ones, with basal clamp-connection; subhymenium ramose; hymenophoral trama regular, made up of cylindrical, subhyaline 4.5-15 µm wide hyphae. Marginal cells scarce, filamentous or subclavate, 4-6 µm wide, hyaline, thin-walled. Pileus surface consisting of a poorly differentiated cutis made up of rather compact, cylindrical hyphae, 4.5-12 µm wide, rarely interwoven and with scattered fascicles of perpendicular hyphae, with a pale brown intraparietal and plasmatic pigment. Clamp-connections abundant.
Habitat and distribution. Gregarious on clayey moist areas covered by mosses, often in small fascicles of 3-5 basidiomata. Autumn. Known from Kamchatka (Asiatic Russia), Switzerland, Austria, and Sardinia (Italy).
 
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