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 Add this item to the list   Sarcodon underwoodii Banker
   
Literature:
 
Page number:111 
Remarks (internal):Acer rubrum (endomycorrhizal) was the only tree species always present, bot Tsuga canadensis was found at most of the collection sites.
Sarcodon underwoodii is a common species in the southern Appalachian Mountains, bot is often confused with S. scabrous. The differences between these species are reviewed in the Discussion section of S. scabrous.
Banker (1906) and Coker and Beers (1951) believed that the European species, S. fennicus Karst., which is similar to S. underwoodii, was found in North America. However, after observing the type material of _S.,a fennicus, it is evident that this species does not occur in the southern Appalachian Mountains (Baird, 1986). Coker identified many collections of S. underwoodii (eg. TENN 3136 and 6486) as S. fennicus. Therefore, the description of S. fennicus included in the work of Coker and Beers (1951), actually represents S. underwoodii.
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Sarcodon underwoodii Banker
Sporophore single to gregarious. Pileus up to 11.0 cm broad, convex to plane or depressed, fibrillose, pubescent, becoming appressed squamulose, later with raised tips at the disc, yellowish white (4A2), light orange (5A4) to brown (7E7) ("Pale Ochraceous Buff to "Snuff Brown"); context up to 2.0 cm thick, not duplex, zonate, white (5A1) to gray (5B1) ("Creamy White" to "French Gray"); taste very bitter; smell slightly fragrant. Stipe up to 9.0 x 2.0 cm, central, attenuate below to a radicating base, subsquamulose, fibrillose to glabrous, scabrous from abortive spines, concolorous with the pileus, white tomentum covering a surface that is concolorous to rarely blackened colored base. Spines are up to 4.0 mm long, decurrent almost to the base of the stipe, subcrowded to distant, white (5A1) to light yellow (5A4) to violet brown (11E4) with or without whitish tips ("Creamy White" to "Dark Vinaceous Brown"). Chemical reactions: context tissue olive green in KOH or NH4OH. Pileus trama hyphae are up to 31.0 µm diam, inflated, interwoven throughout the context, unclamped; gloeoplerous-like hyphae up to 7.5 µm diam. Stipe hyphae up to 30.0 µm diam, inflated, interwoven throughout the context, unclamped; gloeoplerous-like hyphae up to 16.4 µm diam. Spine trama hyphae up to 8.0 µm diam, uninflated to inflated, unclamped. Basidia (25.0) 30.0-60.0 (80.0) x (5.5) 6.0-8.0 (9.0) µm (X= 41.90?9.44 x 7.18?0.97 µm), clavate, unclamped, 4-spored; sterigmata (3.5) 4.0-6.0 (7.5) µm tong (X= 4.67?0.78 µm). Basidiospores (4.5) 5.0-7.0 (7.5) x 4.5-6.5 (7.0) µm (X= 6.24?0.78 x 5.54?0.73 µm), subglobose, brownish; ornamentation tuberculate, prominent, flattened to exculpate; hilar appendage oblique.
Terphenylquinones: thelephoric acid.
Distribution: occurs in the eastern (Coker and Beers, 1951) and western (Hall and Stuntz, 1972) United States and in Europe (Maas Geesteranus, 1975).
 
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